By-law builder – List of options

Definitions

Option 1

In this by-law and all other by-laws of the Corporation, unless the context otherwise requires:

"Act" means the Canada Not-For-Profit Corporations Act S.C. 2009, c.23 including the Regulations made pursuant to the Act, and any statute or regulations that may be substituted, as amended from time to time;

"articles" means the original or restated articles of incorporation or articles of amendment, amalgamation, continuance, reorganization, arrangement or revival of the Corporation;

"board" means the board of directors of the Corporation and "director" means a member of the board;

"by-law" means this by-law and any other by-law of the Corporation as amended and which are, from time to time, in force and effect;

"meeting of members" includes an annual meeting of members or a special meeting of members; "special meeting of members" includes a meeting of any class or classes of members and a special meeting of all members entitled to vote at an annual meeting of members;

"ordinary resolution" means a resolution passed by a majority (for example more than 50%) of the votes cast on that resolution;

"proposal" means a proposal submitted by a member of the Corporation that meets the requirements of section 163 (Shareholder Proposals) of the Act;

"Regulations" means the regulations made under the Act, as amended, restated or in effect from time to time; and

"special resolution" means a resolution passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds (2/3) of the votes cast on that resolution.

Option 2

Write your own definitions.

Option 3

The definitions in Option 1 plus your own additional definitions.


Interpretation

Option 1

In the interpretation of this by-law, words in the singular include the plural and vice-versa, words in one gender include all genders, and "person" includes an individual, body corporate, partnership, trust and unincorporated organization.

Other than as specified above, words and expressions defined in the Act have the same meanings when used in these by-laws.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the interpretation of the corporation's by-laws.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing the interpretation of your by-laws.


Corporate Seal

Option 1

The Corporation may have a corporate seal in the form approved from time to time by the board. If a corporate seal is approved by the board, the secretary of the Corporation shall be the custodian of the corporate seal.

Option 2

The seal, an impression of which is stamped in the margin of this document, shall be the seal of the corporation. The secretary of the Corporation shall be the custodian of the corporate seal.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the corporation's corporate seal.

Option 4

Do not include a by-law regarding a corporate seal whether or not the corporation has a corporate seal.

Execution of Documents

Option 1

Deeds, transfers, assignments, contracts, obligations and other instruments in writing requiring execution by the Corporation may be signed by any two (2) of its officers or directors. In addition, the board may from time to time direct the manner in which and the person or persons by whom a particular document or type of document shall be executed. Any person authorized to sign any document may affix the corporate seal (if any) to the document. Any signing officer may certify a copy of any instrument, resolution, by-law or other document of the Corporation to be a true copy thereof.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the execution of documents.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing the execution of documents.


Financial Year End

Option 1

The financial year end of the Corporation shall be determined by the board of directors.

Option 2

The financial year end of the Corporation shall be [Month] [day] in each year.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the corporation's financial year end.

Option 4

Do not include a by-law governing the corporation's financial year end.


Banking Arrangements

Option 1

The banking business of the Corporation shall be transacted at such bank, trust company or other firm or corporation carrying on a banking business in Canada or elsewhere as the board of directors may designate, appoint or authorize from time to time by resolution. The banking business or any part of it shall be transacted by an officer or officers of the Corporation and/or other persons as the board of directors may by resolution from time to time designate, direct or authorize.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the corporation's banking arrangements.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing the corporation's banking arrangements.

Borrowing Powers

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

The directors of the Corporation may, without authorization of the members,

  1. borrow money on the credit of the corporation;
  2. issue, reissue, sell, pledge or hypothecate debt obligations of the corporation;
  3. give a guarantee on behalf and
  4. mortgage, hypothecate, pledge or otherwise create a security interest in all or any property of the corporation, owned or subsequently acquired, to secure any debt obligation of the corporation.

Option 2

If authorized by a by-law which is duly adopted by the directors and confirmed by ordinary resolution of the members, the directors of the corporation may from time to time:

  1. borrow money on the credit of the corporatio;
  2. issue, reissue, sell, pledge or hypothecate debt obligations of the corporation; and
  3. mortgage, hypothecate, pledge or otherwise create a security interest in all or any property of the corporation, owned or subsequently acquired, to secure any debt obligation of the corporation.

Any such by-law may provide for the delegation of such powers by the directors to such officers or directors of the corporation to such extent and in such manner as may be set out in the by-law.

Nothing herein limits or restricts the borrowing of money by the corporation on bills of exchange or promissory notes made, drawn, accepted or endorsed by or on behalf of the corporation.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the power of the board of directors concerning borrowing.


Annual Financial Statements

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

The Corporation shall send to the members a copy of the annual financial statements and other documents referred to in subsection 172(1) (Annual Financial Statements) of the Act or a copy of a publication of the Corporation reproducing the information contained in the documents. Instead of sending the documents, the Corporation may send a summary to each member along with a notice informing the member of the procedure for obtaining a copy of the documents themselves free of charge. The Corporation is not required to send the documents or a summary to a member who, in writing, declines to receive such documents.

Option 2

The Corporation may, instead of sending copies of the annual financial statements and other documents referred to in subsection 172(1) (Annual Financial Statements) of the Act to the members, publish a notice to its members stating that the annual financial statements and documents provided in subsection 172(1) are available at the registered office of the Corporation and any member may, on request, obtain a copy free of charge at the registered office or by prepaid mail.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the corporation's annual financial statements.


Membership Conditions

Option 1

(For one membership class composed of individuals only.)

Subject to the articles, there shall be one class of members in the Corporation. Membership in the Corporation shall be available only to individuals interested in furthering the Corporation's purposes and who have applied for and been accepted into membership in the Corporation by resolution of the board or in such other manner as may be determined by the board. Each member shall be entitled to receive notice of, attend and vote at all meetings of the members of the Corporation.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the by-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l) or (m).

Option 2

(For one membership class composed of individuals, corporations and other entities which are all considered "persons".)

Subject to the articles, there shall be one class of members in the Corporation. Membership in the Corporation shall be available to persons interested in furthering the Corporation's purposes and who have applied for and been accepted into membership in the Corporation by resolution of the board or in such other manner as may be determined by the board. Each member shall be entitled to receive notice of, attend and vote at all meetings of the members of the Corporation.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the by-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l) or (m).

Option 3

(For two membership classes composed of individuals only.)

Subject to the articles, there shall be two classes of members in the Corporation, namely, Class A members and Class B members. The board of directors of the Corporation may, by resolution, approve the admission of the members of the Corporation. Members may also be admitted in such other manner as may be prescribed by the board by resolution. The following conditions of membership shall apply:

Class A Members

  1. Class A voting membership shall be available only to individuals who have applied and have been accepted for Class A voting membership in the Corporation.
  2. The term of membership of a Class A voting member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
  3. As set out in the articles, each Class A voting member is entitled to receive notice of, attend and vote at all meetings of members and each such Class A voting member shall be entitled to one (1) vote at such meetings.

Class B Members

  1. Class B non-voting membership shall be available only to individuals who have applied and have been accepted for Class B non-voting membership in the Corporation.
  2. The term of membership of a Class B non-voting member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
  3. Subject to the Act and the articles, a Class B non-voting member shall not be entitled to receive notice of, attend or vote at meetings of the members of the Corporation.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the by-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l) or (m).

Option 4

(For two membership classes composed of individuals, corporations and other entities which are all considered "persons".)

Subject to the articles, there shall be two classes of members in the Corporation, namely, Class A members and Class B members. The board of directors of the Corporation may, by resolution, approve the admission of the members of the Corporation. Members may also be admitted in such other manner as may be prescribed by the board by resolution. The following conditions of membership shall apply:

Class A Members

  1. Class A voting membership shall be available to persons who have applied and have been accepted for Class A voting membership in the Corporation.
  2. The term of membership of a Class A voting member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
  3. As set out in the articles, each Class A voting member is entitled to receive notice of, attend and vote at all meetings of members and each such Class A voting member shall be entitled to one (1) vote at such meetings.

Class B Members

  1. Class B non-voting membership shall be available to persons who have applied and have been accepted for Class B non-voting membership in the Corporation.
  2. The term of membership of a Class B non-voting member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
  3. Subject to the Act and the articles, a Class B non-voting member shall not be entitled to receive notice of, attend or vote at meetings of the members of the Corporation.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the by-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l) or (m).

Option 5

Write your own by-law governing the corporation's conditions of membership which will have the following paragraph added to it:

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the by-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l) or (m).

Membership Transferability

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

A membership may only be transferred to the Corporation. Pursuant to Section 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to add, change or delete this section of the by-laws.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the corporation's transferability of membership which will have the following paragraph added to it:

Pursuant to Section 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to add, change or delete this section of the by-laws.


Notice of Members Meeting

Option 1

(Notice sent by mail or electronic means.)

Notice of the time and place of a meeting of members shall be given to each member entitled to vote at the meeting by the following means:

  1. by mail, courier or personal delivery to each member entitled to vote at the meeting, during a period of 21 to 60 days before the day on which the meeting is to be held; or
  2. by telephonic, electronic or other communication facility to each member entitled to vote at the meeting, during a period of 21 to 35 days before the day on which the meeting is to be held.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.

Option 2

(Notice sent by electronic means only.)

Notice of the time and place of a meeting of members shall be given to each member entitled to vote at the meeting by telephonic, electronic or other communication facility to each member entitled to vote at the meeting, during a period of 21 to 35 days before the day on which the meeting is to be held. If a member requests that the notice be given by non-electronic means, the notice will be sent by mail, courier or personal delivery.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.

Option 3

(Notice affixed to a notice board.)

Notice of the time and place of a meeting of members shall be given to each member entitled to vote at the meeting by affixing the notice, no later than 30 days before the day on which the meeting is to be held, to a notice board on which information respecting the corporation's activities is regularly posted and that is located in the main facilities or club house of the corporation.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.

Option 4

(Notice sent by mail or published in a newspaper.)

Notice of the time and place of a meeting of members shall be given to each member entitled to vote at the meeting by the following means:

  1. in the case of a corporation that has more than 250 members, by publication
    1. at least once in each of the three weeks immediately before the day on which the meeting is to be held in one or more newspapers circulated in the municipalities in which the majority of the members of the corporation reside as shown by their addresses in the register of members, or
    2. at least once in a publication of the corporation that is sent to all its members, during a period of 21 to 60 days before the day on which the meeting is to be held; or
  2. by mail, courier or personal delivery to each member entitled to vote at the meeting, during a period of 21 to 60 days before the day on which the meeting is to be held.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.

Option 5

Write your own by-law governing how notice will be provided for meetings of members which will have the following paragraph added to it:

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.


Members Calling a Members' Meeting

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

The board of directors shall call a special meeting of members in accordance with Section 167 of the Act, on written requisition of members carrying not less than 5% of the voting rights. If the directors do not call a meeting within twenty-one (21) days of receiving the requisition, any member who signed the requisition may call the meeting.

Option 2

The board of directors shall call a special meeting of members in accordance with Section 167 of the Act, on written requisition of members carrying not less than […] of the voting rights. If the directors do not call a meeting within twenty-one (21) days of receiving the requisition, any member who signed the requisition may call the meeting.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing members calling a meeting of members.


Absentee Voting at Members' Meetings

Option 1

(By mailed-in ballot.)

Pursuant to section 171(1) (Absentee Voting) of the Act, a member entitled to vote at a meeting of members may vote by mailed-in ballot if the Corporation has a system that:

  1. enables the votes to be gathered in a manner that permits their subsequent verification, and
  2. permits the tallied votes to be presented to the Corporation without it being possible for the Corporation to identify how each member voted.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change this method of voting by members not in attendance at a meeting of members.

Option 2

(By electronic ballot.)

Pursuant to section 171(1) (Absentee Voting) of the Act, a member entitled to vote at a meeting of members may vote by means of a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility if the Corporation has a system that:

  1. enables the votes to be gathered in a manner that permits their subsequent verification, and
  2. permits the tallied votes to be presented to the Corporation without it being possible for the Corporation to identify how each member voted.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change this method of voting by members not in attendance at a meeting of members.

Option 3

(By mailed-in or electronic ballot.)

Pursuant to section 171(1) (Absentee Voting) of the Act, a member entitled to vote at a meeting of members may vote by mailed-in ballot or by means of a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility if the Corporation has a system that:

  1. enables the votes to be gathered in a manner that permits their subsequent verification, and
  2. permits the tallied votes to be presented to the Corporation without it being possible for the Corporation to identify how each member voted.

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change this method of voting by members not in attendance at a meeting of members.

Option 4

(By proxy)

Pursuant to Section 171(1) of the Act, a member entitled to vote at a meeting of members may vote by proxy by appointing in writing a proxyholder, and one or more alternate proxyholders, who are not required to be members, to attend and act at the meeting in the manner and to the extent authorized by the proxy and with the authority conferred by it subject to the following requirements:

  1. a proxy is valid only at the meeting in respect of which it is given or at a continuation of that meeting after an adjournment;
  2. a member may revoke a proxy by depositing an instrument or act in writing executed or, in Quebec, signed by the member or by their agent or mandatary
    1. at the registered office of the corporation no later than the last business day preceding the day of the meeting, or the day of the continuation of that meeting after an adjournment of that meeting, at which the proxy is to be used, or
    2. with the chairperson of the meeting on the day of the meeting or the day of the continuation of that meeting after an adjournment of that meeting;
  3. a proxyholder or an alternate proxyholder has the same rights as the member by whom they were appointed, including the right to speak at a meeting of members in respect of any matter, to vote by way of ballot at the meeting, to demand a ballot at the meeting and, except where a proxyholder or an alternate proxyholder has conflicting instructions from more than one member, to vote at the meeting by way of a show of hands;
  4. if a form of proxy is created by a person other than the member, the form of proxy shall
    1. indicate, in bold-face type,
      1. the meeting at which it is to be used,
      2. that the member may appoint a proxyholder, other than a person designated in the form of proxy, to attend and act on their behalf at the meeting, and
      3. instructions on the manner in which the member may appoint the proxyholder,
    2. contain a designated blank space for the date of the signature,
    3. provide a means for the member to designate some other person as proxyholder, if the form of proxy designates a person as proxyholder,
    4. provide a means for the member to specify that the membership registered in their name is to be voted for or against each matter, or group of related matters, identified in the notice of meeting, other than the appointment of a public accountant and the election of directors,
    5. provide a means for the member to specify that the membership registered in their name is to be voted or withheld from voting in respect of the appointment of a public accountant or the election of directors, and
    6. state that the membership represented by the proxy is to be voted or withheld from voting, in accordance with the instructions of the member, on any ballot that may be called for and that, if the member specifies a choice under subparagraph (iv) or (v) with respect to any matter to be acted on, the membership is to be voted accordingly;
  5. a form of proxy may include a statement that, when the proxy is signed, the member confers authority with respect to matters for which a choice is not provided in accordance with subparagraph (d)(iv) only if the form of proxy states, in bold-face type, how the proxyholder is to vote the membership in respect of each matter or group of related matters;
  6. if a form of proxy is sent in electronic form, the requirements that certain information be set out in bold-face type are satisfied if the information in question is set out in some other manner so as to draw the addressee's attention to the information; and
  7. a form of proxy that, if signed, has the effect of conferring a discretionary authority in respect of amendments to matters identified in the notice of meeting or other matters that may properly come before the meeting must contain a specific statement to that effect.

Pursuant to Section 197(1) of the Act, a special resolution of the members (and if Section 199 applies, a special resolution of each class of members) is required to make any amendment to the articles or by-laws of the Corporation to change this method of voting by members not in attendance at a meeting of members.

Option 5

Write your own by-law governing absentee voting at meetings of members which will have the following paragraph added to it:

Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change this method of voting by members not in attendance at a meeting of members.

Option 6

Do not include a by-law governing absentee voting at meetings of members in which case there will be no absentee voting.

Membership Dues

Option 1

Members shall be notified in writing of the membership dues at any time payable by them and, if any are not paid within one (1) calendar month of the membership renewal date the members in default shall automatically cease to be members of the Corporation.

Option 2

There shall be no dues payable by members for membership in the corporation.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the payment of membership dues.

Option 4

Do not include a by-law governing the payment of membership dues.


Termination of Membership

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

A membership in the Corporation is terminated when:

  1. the member dies or resigns;
  2. the member is expelled or their membership is otherwise terminated in accordance with the articles or by-laws;
  3. the member's term of membership expires; or
  4. the Corporation is liquidated and dissolved under the Act.

Option 2

A membership in the Corporation is terminated when:

  1. the member dies, or, in the case of a member that is a corporation, the corporation is dissolved;
  2. a member fails to maintain any qualifications for membership described in the section on membership conditions of these by-laws;
  3. the member resigns by delivering a written resignation to the chair of the board of the Corporation in which case such resignation shall be effective on the date specified in the resignation;
  4. the member is expelled in accordance with any discipline of members section or is otherwise terminated in accordance with the articles or by-laws;
  5. the member's term of membership expires; or
  6. the Corporation is liquidated or dissolved under the Act.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the termination of membership.


Effect of Termination of Membership

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

Subject to the articles, upon any termination of membership, the rights of the member, including any rights in the property of the Corporation, automatically cease to exist.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the effect of termination of membership.


Discipline of Members

Option 1

The board shall have authority to suspend or expel any member from the Corporation for any one or more of the following grounds:

  1. violating any provision of the articles, by-laws, or written policies of the Corporation;
  2. carrying out any conduct which may be detrimental to the Corporation as determined by the board in its sole discretion;
  3. for any other reason that the board in its sole and absolute discretion considers to be reasonable, having regard to the purpose of the Corporation.

In the event that the board determines that a member should be expelled or suspended from membership in the Corporation, the president, or such other officer as may be designated by the board, shall provide twenty (20) days notice of suspension or expulsion to the member and shall provide reasons for the proposed suspension or expulsion. The member may make written submissions to the president, or such other officer as may be designated by the board, in response to the notice received within such twenty (20) day period. In the event that no written submissions are received by the president, the president, or such other officer as may be designated by the board, may proceed to notify the member that the member is suspended or expelled from membership in the Corporation. If written submissions are received in accordance with this section, the board will consider such submissions in arriving at a final decision and shall notify the member concerning such final decision within a further twenty (20) days from the date of receipt of the submissions. The board's decision shall be final and binding on the member, without any further right of appeal.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the discipline of members.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing the discipline of members.

Proposals Nominating Directors at Annual Members' Meetings

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

Subject to the Regulations under the Act, any proposal may include nominations for the election of directors if the proposal is signed by not less than 5% of members entitled to vote at the meeting at which the proposal is to be presented.

Option 2

Subject to the Regulations under the Act, any proposal may include nominations for the election of directors if the proposal is signed by not less than [!proposalsannualmeetings-opt2.code!] of members entitled to vote at the meeting at which the proposal is to be presented.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing proposals nominating directors at annual members' meetings.


Cost of Publishing Proposals for Annual Members' Meetings

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

The member who submitted the proposal shall pay the cost of including the proposal and any statement in the notice of meeting at which the proposal is to be presented unless otherwise provided by ordinary resolution of the members present at the meeting.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the cost of publishing proposals for annual members' meetings.


Place of Members' Meeting

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

Subject to compliance with section 159 (Place of Members' Meetings) of the Act, meetings of the members may be held at any place within Canada determined by the board or, if all of the members entitled to vote at such meeting so agree, outside Canada.

Option 2

Meetings of the members will be held at the registered office of the corporation.

Option 3

Meetings of the members will be held at the club house of the corporation.

Option 4

Write your own by-law governing the place of meetings of members.


Persons Entitled to be Present at Members' Meetings

Option 1

(Members only)

The only persons entitled to be present at a meeting of members shall be those entitled to vote at the meeting, the directors and the public accountant of the Corporation and such other persons who are entitled or required under any provision of the Act, articles or by-laws of the Corporation to be present at the meeting. Any other person may be admitted only on the invitation of the chair of the meeting or by resolution of the members.

Option 2

(Open to the public)

Members, non-members, directors and the public accountant of the Corporation are entitled to be present at a meeting of members. However, only those members entitled to vote at the members' meeting according to the provisions of the Act, articles and by-laws are entitled to cast a vote at the meeting.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing who is entitled to be present at meetings of members.

Option 4

Do not include a by-law governing who is entitled to be present at meetings of members.

Chair of Members' Meetings

Option 1

In the event that the chair of the board and the vice-chair of the board are absent, the members who are present and entitled to vote at the meeting shall choose one of their number to chair the meeting.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing who is the chair of meetings of members.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing who is the chair of meetings of members.


Quorum at Members' Meetings

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

A quorum at any meeting of the members (unless a greater number of members are required to be present by the Act) shall be a majority of the members entitled to vote at the meeting. If a quorum is present at the opening of a meeting of members, the members present may proceed with the business of the meeting even if a quorum is not present throughout the meeting.

Option 2

percentage:

A quorum at any meeting of the members (unless a greater number of members are required to be present by the Act) shall be [!quorummembers-percent.code!] percent of the members entitled to vote at the meeting. If a quorum is present at the opening of a meeting of members, the members present may proceed with the business of the meeting even if a quorum is not present throughout the meeting.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the quorum at meetings of members.


Votes to Govern at Members' Meetings

Option 1

At any meeting of members every question shall, unless otherwise provided by the articles or by-laws or by the Act, be determined by a majority of the votes cast on the questions. In case of an equality of votes either on a show of hands or on a ballot or on the results of electronic voting, the chair of the meeting in addition to an original vote shall have a second or casting vote.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing how votes are to be determined at meetings of members.


Participation by Electronic Means at Members' Meetings

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

If the Corporation chooses to make available a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during a meeting of members, any person entitled to attend such meeting may participate in the meeting by means of such telephonic, electronic or other communication facility in the manner provided by the Act. A person participating in a meeting by such means is deemed to be present at the meeting. Notwithstanding any other provision of this by-law, any person participating in a meeting of members pursuant to this section who is entitled to vote at that meeting may vote, in accordance with the Act, by means of any telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that the Corporation has made available for that purpose.

Option 2

Participation at meetings of members may not be by telephonic, electronic or other communication facility.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing electronic participation at meetings of members.

Members' Meeting Held Entirely by Electronic Means

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

Meetings of members may not be held entirely by telephonic, an electronic or other communication facility.

Option 2

If the directors or members of the Corporation call a meeting of members pursuant to the Act, those directors or members, as the case may be, may determine that the meeting shall be held, in accordance with the Act and the Regulations, entirely by means of a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during the meeting.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing meetings of members held entirely by electronic means.


Number of Directors

Option 1

The board shall consist of the number of directors specified in the articles. If the articles provide for a minimum and maximum number of directors, the board shall be comprised of the fixed number of directors as determined from time to time by the members by ordinary resolution or, if the ordinary resolution empowers the directors to determine the number, by resolution of the board. In the case of a soliciting corporation the minimum number of directors may not be fewer than three (3), at least two of whom are not officers or employees of the Corporation or its affiliates.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing how to fix the number of directors.


Term of Office of Directors

Option 1

(Fixed term)

The directors shall be elected to hold office for a term expiring not later than the close of the [nest – second – third – fourth] annual meeting of members following the election.

Option 2

(Rolling term)

At the first election of Directors following the approval of this by-law, one-third (1/3) directors shall be elected for a three-year term, one-third (1/3) directors shall be elected for a two-year term and one-third (1/3) directors shall be elected for a one-year term. Thereafter, except where an election is held to fill the unexpired portion of a term, newly elected directors shall be elected for three-year (3) terms.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the term of office for directors.

Option 4

Do not include a by-law governing the term of office for directors.


Calling of Meetings of Board of Directors

Option 1

(For newly-incorporated corporations.)

Meetings of the board may be called by the chair of the board, the vice-chair of the board or any two (2) directors at any time; provided that for the first organization meeting following incorporation, such meeting may be called by any director or incorporator. If the Corporation has only one director, that director may call and constitute a meeting.

Option 2

(For corporations continuing into the NFP Act.)

Meetings of the board may be called by the chair of the board, the vice-chair of the board or any two (2) directors at any time. If the Corporation has only one director, that director may call and constitute a meeting.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing the calling of meetings of the board of directors.

Notice of Meeting of Board of Directors

Option 1

Notice of the time and place for the holding of a meeting of the board shall be given in the manner provided in the section on giving notice of meeting of directors of this by-law to every director of the Corporation not less than [x] days before the time when the meeting is to be held. Notice of a meeting shall not be necessary if all of the directors are present, and none objects to the holding of the meeting, or if those absent have waived notice of or have otherwise signified their consent to the holding of such meeting. Notice of an adjourned meeting is not required if the time and place of the adjourned meeting is announced at the original meeting. Unless the by-law otherwise provides, no notice of meeting need specify the purpose or the business to be transacted at the meeting except that a notice of meeting of directors shall specify any matter referred to in subsection 138(2) (Limits on Authority) of the Act that is to be dealt with at the meeting.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the notice to directors of meetings of the board.


Regular Meetings of the Board of Directors

Option 1

The board may appoint a day or days in any month or months for regular meetings of the board at a place and hour to be named. A copy of any resolution of the board fixing the place and time of such regular meetings of the board shall be sent to each director forthwith after being passed, but no other notice shall be required for any such regular meeting except if subsection 136(3) (Notice of Meeting) of the Act requires the purpose thereof or the business to be transacted to be specified in the notice.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing regular meetings of the board of directors.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing regular meetings of the board of directors.


Votes to Govern at Meetings of the Board of Directors

Option 1

At all meetings of the board, every question shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast on the question. In case of an equality of votes, the chair of the meeting in addition to an original vote shall have a second or casting vote.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing how votes are to be determined at meetings of the board of directors.


Committees of the Board of Directors

Option 1

The board may from time to time appoint any committee or other advisory body, as it deems necessary or appropriate for such purposes and, subject to the Act, with such powers as the board shall see fit. Any such committee may formulate its own rules of procedure, subject to such regulations or directions as the board may from time to time make. Any committee member may be removed by resolution of the board of directors.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing committees of the board of directors.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing committees of the board of directors.

Appointment of Officers

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

The board may designate the offices of the Corporation, appoint officers on an annual or more frequent basis, specify their duties and, subject to the Act, delegate to such officers the power to manage the affairs of the Corporation. A director may be appointed to any office of the Corporation. An officer may, but need not be, a director unless these by-laws otherwise provide. Two or more offices may be held by the same person.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the appointment of officers.


Description of Offices

Option 1

Unless otherwise specified by the board (which may, subject to the Act modify, restrict or supplement such duties and powers), the offices of the Corporation, if designated and if officers are appointed, shall have the following duties and powers associated with their positions:

  1. Chair of the Board – The chair of the board, if one is to be appointed, shall be a director. The chair of the board, if any, shall, when present, preside at all meetings of the board of directors and of the members. The chair shall have such other duties and powers as the board may specify.
  2. Vice-Chair of the Board – The vice-chair of the board, if one is to be appointed, shall be a director. If the chair of the board is absent or is unable or refuses to act, the vice-chair of the board, if any, shall, when present, preside at all meetings of the board of directors and of the members. The vice-chair shall have such other duties and powers as the board may specify.
  3. President – If appointed, the president shall be the chief executive officer of the Corporation and shall be responsible for implementing the strategic plans and policies of the Corporation. The president shall, subject to the authority of the board, have general supervision of the affairs of the Corporation.
  4. Secretary – If appointed, the secretary shall attend and be the secretary of all meetings of the board, members and committees of the board. The secretary shall enter or cause to be entered in the Corporation's minute book, minutes of all proceedings at such meetings; the secretary shall give, or cause to be given, as and when instructed, notices to members, directors, the public accountant and members of committees; the secretary shall be the custodian of all books, papers, records, documents and other instruments belonging to the Corporation.
  5. Treasurer – If appointed, the treasurer shall have such powers and duties as the board may specify.

The powers and duties of all other officers of the Corporation shall be such as the terms of their engagement call for or the board or president requires of them. The board may from time to time and subject to the Act, vary, add to or limit the powers and duties of any officer.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the description of offices.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing the description of offices.


Vacancy in Office

Option 1

In the absence of a written agreement to the contrary, the board may remove, whether for cause or without cause, any officer of the Corporation. Unless so removed, an officer shall hold office until the earlier of:

  1. the officer's successor being appointed,
  2. the officer's resignation,
  3. such officer ceasing to be a director (if a necessary qualification of appointment) or
  4. such officer's death.

If the office of any officer of the Corporation shall be or become vacant, the directors may, by resolution, appoint a person to fill such vacancy.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing a vacancy in an office.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing a vacancy in an office.


Method of Giving Any Notice

Option 1

Any notice (which term includes any communication or document), other than notice of a meeting of members or a meeting of the board of directors, to be given (which term includes sent, delivered or served) pursuant to the Act, the articles, the by-laws or otherwise to a member, director, officer or member of a committee of the board or to the public accountant shall be sufficiently given:

  1. if delivered personally to the person to whom it is to be given or if delivered to such person's address as shown in the records of the Corporation or in the case of notice to a director to the latest address as shown in the last notice that was sent by the Corporation in accordance with section 128 (Notice of directors) or 134 (Notice of change of directors) and received by the Director;
  2. if mailed to such person at such person's recorded address by prepaid ordinary or air mail;
  3. if sent to such person by telephonic, electronic or other communication facility at such person's recorded address for that purpose; or
  4. if provided in the form of an electronic document in accordance with Part 17 of the Act.

A notice so delivered shall be deemed to have been given when it is delivered personally or to the recorded address as aforesaid; a notice so mailed shall be deemed to have been given when deposited in a post office or public letter box; and a notice so sent by any means of transmitted or recorded communication shall be deemed to have been given when dispatched or delivered to the appropriate communication company or agency or its representative for dispatch. The secretary may change or cause to be changed the recorded address of any member, director, officer, public accountant or member of a committee of the board in accordance with any information believed by the secretary to be reliable. The declaration by the secretary that notice has been given pursuant to this by-law shall be sufficient and conclusive evidence of the giving of such notice. The signature of any director or officer of the Corporation to any notice or other document to be given by the Corporation may be written, stamped, type-written or printed or partly written, stamped, type-written or printed.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing the giving of notice of a meeting of the board of directors.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing the giving of notice of a meeting of the board of directors.

Invalidity of any Provisions of this By-law

Option 1

The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this by-law shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remaining provisions of this by-law.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing invalidity of any provisions of this by-law.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing invalidity of any provisions of this by-law.


Omissions and Errors

Option 1

The accidental omission to give any notice to any member, director, officer, member of a committee of the board or public accountant, or the non-receipt of any notice by any such person where the corporation has provided notice in accordance with the by-laws or any error in any notice not affecting its substance shall not invalidate any action taken at any meeting to which the notice pertained or otherwise founded on such notice.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing omissions and errors.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing omissions and errors.


Mediation and Arbitration

Option 1

Disputes or controversies among members, directors, officers, committee members, or volunteers of the Corporation are as much as possible to be resolved in accordance with mediation and/or arbitration as provided in the section on dispute resolution mechanism of this by-law.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing mediation and arbitration.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing mediation and arbitration.


Dispute Resolution Mechanism

Option 1

In the event that a dispute or controversy among members, directors, officers, committee members or volunteers of the Corporation arising out of or related to the articles or by-laws, or out of any aspect of the operations of the Corporation is not resolved in private meetings between the parties, then without prejudice to or in any other way derogating from the rights of the members, directors, officers, committee members, employees or volunteers of the Corporation as set out in the articles, by-laws or the Act, and as an alternative to such person instituting a law suit or legal action, such dispute or controversy shall be settled by a process of dispute resolution as follows:

  • The dispute or controversy shall first be submitted to a panel of mediators whereby the one party appoints one mediator, the other party (or if applicable the board of the Corporation) appoints one mediator, and the two mediators so appointed jointly appoint a third mediator. The three mediators will then meet with the parties in question in an attempt to mediate a resolution between the parties.
  • The number of mediators may be reduced from three to one or two upon agreement of the parties.
  • If the parties are not successful in resolving the dispute through mediation, then the parties agree that the dispute shall be settled by arbitration before a single arbitrator, who shall not be any one of the mediators referred to above, in accordance with the provincial or territorial legislation governing domestic arbitrations in force in the province or territory where the registered office of the Corporation is situated or as otherwise agreed upon by the parties to the dispute. The parties agree that all proceedings relating to arbitration shall be kept confidential and there shall be no disclosure of any kind. The decision of the arbitrator shall be final and binding and shall not be subject to appeal on a question of fact, law or mixed fact and law.

All costs of the mediators appointed in accordance with this section shall be borne equally by the parties to the dispute or the controversy. All costs of the arbitrators appointed in accordance with this section shall be borne by such parties as may be determined by the arbitrators.

Option 2

Write your own by-law governing dispute resolution.

Option 3

Do not include a by-law governing dispute resolution.

By-laws and Effective Date

Option 1

(This is the default rule in the Act.)

Subject to the articles, the board of directors may, by resolution, make, amend or repeal any by-laws that regulate the activities or affairs of the Corporation. Any such by-law, amendment or repeal shall be effective from the date of the resolution of directors until the next meeting of members where it may be confirmed, rejected or amended by the members by ordinary resolution. If the by-law, amendment or repeal is confirmed or confirmed as amended by the members it remains effective in the form in which it was confirmed. The by-law, amendment or repeal ceases to have effect if it is not submitted to the members at the next meeting of members or if it is rejected by the members at the meeting.

This section does not apply to a by-law that requires a special resolution of the members according to subsection 197(1) (fundamental change) of the Act because such by-law amendments or repeals are only effective when confirmed by members.

Option 2

The board of directors may not make, amend or repeal any by-laws that regulate the activities or affairs of the Corporation without having the by-law, amendment or repeal confirmed by the members by ordinary resolution. The by-law, amendment or repeal is only effective on the confirmation of the members and in the form in which it was confirmed.

This section does not apply to a by-law that requires a special resolution of the members according to subsection 197(1) (fundamental change) of the Act.

Option 3

Write your own by-law governing making by-laws and their effective date which will have the following paragraph added to it:

This section does not apply to a by-law that requires a special resolution of the members according to subsection 197(1) (fundamental change) of the Act.

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