MOPOP - Chapter 8


Table of Contents

Abstracts - June 2015

Subsection 27(2) of the Patent Act provides the authority for the requirements of a patent application. Pursuant to section 79 of the Patent Rules an application shall contain an abstract; although an abstract is not a requirement for obtaining a filing date. An application other than a PCT national phase application, however, must contain an abstract in order to be complete (paragraph 94(1)(b) of the Patent Rules).

The abstract must be in English or French and in the same language as the rest of the application (subsection 71(3) of the Patent Rules).  At grant the Office translates the abstract into the other official language to better enable searching in both official languages.

Section 79 of the Patent Rules sets forth the required form and content of the abstract and requires that the abstract:

  1. contain a concise summary of the matter contained in the application and, where applicable, the chemical formula that, among all the formulae included in the application, best characterizes the invention;
  2. specify the technical field to which the invention relates;
  3. be drafted in a way that allows the clear understanding of the technical problem, the gist of the solution of that problem through the invention, and the principal use or uses of the invention;
  4. be so drafted that it can efficiently serve as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art; and
  5. not contain more than 150 words

Section 72 of the Patent Rules specifies that the abstract shall commence on a new page separate from the description, the drawings and the claims.  For clarity, it should have a separate heading, such as, "Abstract of the Specification".  Since the abstract will be used as a search tool, the text should avoid patent jargon so that it may be readily understood by technicians and scientists and other persons who are interested in obtaining information about laid-open patent applications and issued patents.  It should provide a means for quickly determining the subject-matter of the specification so that the reader can decide whether a more detailed review of the document is warranted.  The abstract should not refer to purported merits or speculative applications of the invention, and should not compare the invention with the prior art.

The abstract shall not contain drawings, however it may contain chemical or mathematical formulae or the like (Section 74 of the Patent Rules). 

Reference characters in abstracts - September 2014

Each main technical feature mentioned in the abstract and illustrated by a drawing in the application may be followed by a reference character referred to in a drawing, placed between parentheses (subsection 79(7) of the Patent Rules). In the field of biotechnology, the identifier of a sequence listing, such as "SEQ ID NO:1" may be used in the abstract to refer to the sequence listing.

Examination of abstracts - September 2014

Abstracts are subject to examination  in respect to their conformance with section 79 of the Patent Rules.  In addition to setting forth the form and content of the abstract, subsection 79(1) of the Patent Rules states that the abstract "cannot be taken into account for the purpose of interpreting the scope of protection sought or obtained."

Following an amendment to the specification and drawings, the abstract cannot form the basis of support for subject-matter that was not present or reasonably inferred from the specification and drawings as originally filed.

Examples of abstracts - September 2014

The following examples illustrate what are considered to be suitable abstracts.

  1. A heart valve with an annular valve body defining an orifice and having a plurality of struts forming a pair of cages on opposite sides of the orifice. A spherical closure member is captively held within the cages and moved by blood flow between open and closed positions in check valve fashion. A slight leak or backflow is provided in the closed position by making the orifice slightly larger than the closure member. Blood flow is maximized in the open position of the valve by providing a convex profile on the orifice-defining surfaces of the body. An annular rib is formed in a channel around the periphery of the valve body to anchor a suture ring used to secure the valve within the heart.
  2. A method comprising the use of heat to seal overlapping closure panels (1) of a folding box (2) made from paperboard having an extremely thin coating of moisture-proofing thermo-plastic material (3) on opposite surfaces (4). Heated air (6) is directed at the surfaces to be bonded (5), the temperature of the air at the point of impact on the surfaces (5) being above the char point of the board. The boxes (2) are moved so quickly through the air stream (6) that the coating (3) on the side of the panels (1) not directly exposed to the hot air (6) remains substantially non-tacky. A bond (7) is formed almost immediately after heating. Under such conditions the heat applied to soften the thermo-plastic coating (3) is dissipated after completion of the bond (7) by absorption into the board itself, which acts as a heat sink, without the need for cooling devices.
  3. Amides are produced by reacting an ester of a carboxylic acid with an amine, using as catalyst an alkoxide of an alkali metal. The ester is first heated to at least 75oC. under a pressure of no more than 500 mm. of mercury to remove moisture and acid gases which prevent the reaction, and then converted to an amide without further heating.
  4. Process for the production of semiconductor devices, wherein a silicon oxide film is formed on a surface of a semiconductor substrate, followed by deposition of a layer of lead on the film. This combination is then heated at 500-700oC. for at least 10 minutes in an oxidizing atmosphere, whereby a passivating film forms, consisting essentially of silicon oxide and lead oxide. The temperatures employed are substantially lower than those conventionally used, and prevent deterioration of the device.
  5. Wool is heated at 50-65oC. for less than 15 minutes in an aqueous dispersion of 0.1-2.0 percent calcium hydroxide, washed, and then acidified to render it receptive to dyestuffs without adversely affecting the physical properties of the wool.
  6. Compounds of the formula:

    formula: wherein A and Q are hydrogen or alkoxy groups and Y means an alkylene group with 4 to 7 carbon atoms

    wherein A and Q are hydrogen or alkoxy groups and Y means an alkylene group with 4 to 7 carbon atoms, are useful as plant desiccants.
  7. Method by which a token-passing local-area network having from 2 to 2n modules is initialized, where n is an integer greater than zero. When connected into the network and energized, each module determines if the network is initialized and, if not, which module is to do so. Each module has a unique n bit network address. The module with the smallest network address energized before the network is initialized is identified and begins the process of initialization by transmitting tokens addressed sequentially to network addresses beginning with the next higher address than its own until a token so transmitted is accepted by an addresses module or until a token has been addressed to all network addresses other than that of the initiating module. After tokens are transmitted to all possible network addresses other than that of the initiating module, the initiating module generates a fault signal to indicate its status.

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