BPR-5 — Application Procedures and Rules for Digital Radio Broadcasting (DRB) Undertakings
Spectrum and Telecommunications Management
Broadcasting Procedures and Rules
Contains the following amendments:
|C-2.6.2||Radiation Patterns Data||9|
|C-3||Notification to Municipalities/Land-Use Authorities||11|
|C-5||Policy on Providing Non-Broadcasting Services||12|
|Appendix 3||Methodology for Prediction of Coverage||16|
|Appendix 3||DRBLITETM Input Parameters||18|
|Appendix 4||FRC Generation||20|
|Appendix 4||DRBLITETM Input Parameters||21|
Table of Contents
- Section A - International Agreements
- Section B - Digital Radio Broadcasting (DRB) - General
Section C - Preparation of Technical Submissions Supporting Applications for Digital Radio Broadcasting (DRB) Ensembles
- C-1 Application Requirements
- C-2 Engineering Brief
- C-3 Notification to Municipalities/Land-Use Authorities
- C-4 On-Air Testing Procedures
- C-5 Policy on Providing Non-Broadcasting Services
- Appendix 1 Summary Sheets
- Appendix 2 DRB Channel Emission Mask
- Appendix 3 Determination of Coverage
- Appendix 4 Determination of Frequency Re-Use Contours
- Appendix 5 Protection Allowance for Fixed Services
The frequency band 1452-1492 MHz was allocated at WARC-92 to the Broadcasting Service and the Broadcasting Satellite Service, limited to digital audio broadcasting, on a primary basis worldwide (except the USA) and subject to the provisions of Resolution 528 (WARC-92). However, this frequency band is also allocated internationally to other services, notably:
Resolution 528, inter-alia, resolves that a competent conference be held for planning the broadcasting-satellite service (sound) and the development of procedures for the coordinated use of the broadcasting service in this band. In the interim period, the terrestrial DRB service may be introduced subject to coordination with administrations whose services may be affected. Such coordination will be carried out in accordance with relevant ITU-R Recommendations as agreed to by administrations concerned as a result of Resolution 703 (Rev. WARC-92) or otherwise.
The 1452-1492 MHz band is allocated within the USA to the Fixed Service and the Mobile Service on a primary basis. This band is being used by Mobile Aeronautical Telemetry (MAT) systems at various locations within the USA for the monitoring and control of vehicles undergoing flight testing. According to ITU Resolution 528 (WARC-92), it will be necessary to coordinate between assignments in the Broadcasting (DRB) Service and existing or planned MAT systems. Bilateral discussions are underway to determine criteria and procedures for coordination between assignments in the DRB Service and MAT systems.top of page
DRB ensembles operate according to the Eureka 147 (DAB) system specifications of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) ETS 300 401. The Eureka system uses digital techniques to remove redundancy and perceptually irrelevant information from the audio source signal, then it applies closely-controlled redundancy to the transmitted signal for error correction. Efficient spectrum utilization is achieved by interleaving multiple programme signals and by permitting a special feature of frequency re-use.
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) uses the word 'allocation' in reference to the provision of a frequency band for a particular service.
An 'allotment' is the provision of a specific channel for a Digital Service Area (DSA), as defined in the allotment plan. A list of current DRB allotments is published by the Department in the Allotment Plan for Digital Radio Broadcasting.
A Digital Radio Broadcasting (DRB) ensemble is a network of co-channel transmitters which transmits a common multiplex (i.e. carries a distinct group of programmes and ancillary services).
An 'assignment' is the authorized use of an allotment by a DRB ensemble.
A group is a set of up to five broadcasting programmes plus ancillary services, sharing the same channel in a DRB ensemble.
B-1.6 Digital Service Area (DSA)
The Digital Service Area (DSA), which is defined for each DRB allotment, represents the geographical area within which DRB service is intended to be provided. The DSA is derived from the coverage areas of the AM and/or FM undertakings comprising the group.
Coverage is the area delimited by the contour(s) at which DRB reception is predicted for a specified percentage of locations and time. The Allotment Plan used as a coverage objective mobile reception to 90% of locations for 90% of time based on a minimum usable signal strength (i.e. reception threshold) of 44 dBμV/m.
B-1.8 Frequency Re-Use Contour (FRC)
The Frequency Re-Use Contour(s) (FRC) of a DSA defines the area within which unacceptable level of interference would occur to another DSA if assigned the same channel (i.e. co-channel assignment). The FRC contours are based on a field strength of 42 dBμV/m to be exceeded for 10% of locations for 10% of the time.
The plan provides 23 DRB channels in the 40 MHz of available spectrum with a nominal channel bandwidth of 1.536 MHz and a basic data rate of 2,304 Kbits/sec. This channelization raster results in an inter-channel guard band of 208 kHz and a guard band at the edges of 48 kHz. It should be noted that a DRB channel can accommodate up to five broadcasting services plus ancillary services. A list is presented in Table 1.
|Channel No.||Centre Frequency (MHz)|
B-1.10 Transmitter Characteristics
An ensemble can comprise a single transmitter or multiple co-channel transmitters deployed in a fashion to achieve the desirable coverage. The multiple co-channel transmitters can comprise a mix of synchronous transmitters operating as a Single Frequency Network (SFN) and non-synchronous transmitters operating as gap fillers and coverage extenders. Transmitters shall be identified as originating transmitters or repeaters.
B-1.11 Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)
The Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) is the product of the transmitter output power, the transmission line (and combiner) efficiency and the maximum power gain of the antenna relative to an isotropic radiator.
B-1.12 Gap Filler
A DRB gap filler is a repeater (non-synchronous co-channel) designed to provide coverage within holes in the coverage area.
B-1.13 Coverage Extender
A DRB coverage extender is a repeater (non-synchronous co-channel) designed to extend coverage beyond the edge of coverage of the originating transmitters.
B-1.14 Single Frequency Network
A Single Frequency Network (SFN) is a network of co-channel synchronous transmitters designed to achieve a large coverage area. However, a separate distribution network is required to feed the programming to each of the synchronous transmitters in the network.
To the extent possible, the following principles were taken into account in the development of the Allotment Plan for Digital Radio Broadcasting.
- DRB to be introduced as a replacement service to AM and FM services;
- for FM undertakings, the plan to accommodate DRB facilities which will provide for replacement of their existing coverage and have the potential to expand to the highest class of FM undertaking in the community;
- for wide-coverage AM undertakings, the plan to accommodate stereophonic DRB facilities equivalent to the highest Class of FM undertaking in the community. For limited coverage AM undertakings, the plan to permit replacement of existing coverage, with potential to expand to the highest class FM undertaking in the community;
- provision to be made for additional DRB services;
- provision to be made for ancillary services;
- provision to be made for a satellite component.
The current allotment plan may be amended in the future as technology evolves and experience is gained in the implementation.
B-4 Protection of Fixed Services1
The 1,452-1,492 MHz frequency band is presently used by fixed services. DRB ensemble channel allotments were planned to minimize interference to existing in-band fixed services. In order to evaluate the interference from a DRB ensemble into fixed systems, the channel emission mask of Fig. 1, Appendix 5 was adopted.top of page
Section C - Preparation Of Technical Submissions Supporting Applications for Digital Radio Broadcasting (DRB) Ensembles
C-1.1.1 An application is required for:
- the construction of a new DRB ensemble,
- modification to an existing ensemble that impacts on its coverage such as the addition of transmitters, changes to EIRP, antenna height or antenna pattern.
C-1.1.2 The holder of a Broadcasting Certificate for a DRB ensemble shall notify the Department of each addition of programmes/ancillary services to an existing ensemble.
C-1.2.1 A complete technical submission shall include the following:
- Two copies of the appropriate Form IC-2646 or IC-2647. An application for a Broadcasting Certificate for a new DRB ensemble shall be made on departmental Form IC-2646 "Application for a Broadcasting Certificate Digital Radio (DRB) New Undertaking." An application for changes to an existing ensemble requires the submission of Form IC-2647 "Application for a Broadcasting Certificate Digital Radio (DRB) - Change of Facilities."
- Two copies of the departmental Form IC-2374 "Notice of Retention of Broadcasting Engineering Consultant" (refer to BPR-1, Section 1.2).
- One copy of the departmental Form IC-2586 "Preliminary Environmental Information, Municipal/Land-Use Consultation and Aeronautical Site Clearance Attestation" reproduced in BPR-1, Appendix 3.
- One copy of Transport Canada Form 26-0427 "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form."
- Five copies of an engineering brief in suitable loose-leaf binders with identifying labels. The brief shall include all the detailed technical information as outlined in Section C-2.
- Reproducible copy of maps showing the estimated coverage contours, frequency re-use contours and, where applicable, maps of comparative contours for change of facilities.
C-1.2.2 All necessary forms may be obtained from any departmental regional office (Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, Moncton) or from departmental headquarters in Ottawa. All addresses are provided in Appendix 1 of BPR-1. Also, applicants may obtain forms and submit applications at any local office of the Department.
The order of material presented in the engineering brief shall be maintained as listed below to simplify processing in the Department. The metric system known as SI (Système International) shall be used throughout the engineering brief.
The title page shall include the submission title, project or reference number, date, name and address of the applicant, name of the consultant.
The table of contents shall cross-reference pages and sections of the brief.
A summary sheet as per Appendix 1 shall be prepared for each proposed transmitter site and each antenna on that site.
C-2.4.1 Introduction - A general statement shall address the purpose of the brief in relation to the application, including the principal centre(s) to be served, and the design considerations to accomplish the applicant's objectives.
C-2.4.2 Sources of Information - List sources of information used in compiling the engineering brief.
C-2.4.3 Transmitters - Specify make, type and output power. For the purposes of this provisional procedure, a TAC (Technical Acceptance Certificate) is not required.
C-2.4.4 Description of Antenna System - The following details are required:
Antenna - Manufacturer, type, number of sections (if applicable), power gain, vertical and horizontal radiation patterns.
Transmission Line - Manufacturer, type, length in metres and efficiency.
Combiner - Name of manufacturer and operational characteristics, including return loss and loss.
Polarization - Only vertical polarization shall be employed.
Note: The emission mask specified herein is an interim mask pending the completion of studies on emission mask requirements. If the results of these studies indicate a need to tighten the limits of the emission mask then, if necessary, existing licensees will be required to take the necessary steps to meet the amended emission mask.
C-2.4.6 Determination of coverage - The applicant shall provide an estimate of proposed coverage according to the method described in Appendix 3.
C-2.4.7 Frequency Re-Use Contours (FRC) - The applicant shall prepare this analysis according to the method described in Appendix 4.
C-2.4.8 Special Analysis and Commitments Relative to Interference to Other Broadcasting Undertakings - Analysis shall be submitted with appropriate commitments made in regard to all potential interference situations with other broadcasting undertakings as a result of the operation of the proposed DRB facility. The following are some examples of interference possibilities with other broadcasting services which shall be explored for each proposal:
- Ghost reflections of television signals from the new DRB antenna structure (refer to BPR-4, Section C-7);
- Distortion of AM radiation patterns by the new DRB tower located in the vicinity of an AM antenna array.
C-2.4.11 Notification to Municipalities/Land-Use Authorities - The applicant shall notify the municipalities/land-use authorities as per Section C-3. The applicant shall submit a completed copy of the "Preliminary Environmental Information, Municipal/Land-Use Consultation and Aeronautical Site Clearance Attestation" reproduced in BPR-1, Appendix 3. The applicant shall also submit a completed copy of Transport Canada Form 26-0427 "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form."
An elevation diagram of each structure and transmitting antenna as per Figure 1 of Appendix 1 and a block diagram of major components of the transmitting system are to be included in the engineering brief.
C-2.6.1 Radiation Patterns - Horizontal and vertical radiation patterns shall be submitted for each antenna in the ensemble.
- Hard copy (plots) and,
- Electronic format (ASCII comma delimited).
For the vertical and horizontal patterns, data shall be taken relative to maximum gain (boresight). For the vertical and horizontal pattern, a sufficient number of points shall be selected to provide an accuracy of ±0.5 dB in the main beam of the antenna (0 to -10 dB range from maximum) and an accuracy of 1 dB in all other directions.
An electronic file must be prepared for each panel of the antenna system. The file shall contains two sections. The first specifies the horizontal pattern. The second section, which begins with the string VERTICAL_PATTERN, specifies the vertical pattern. The first line of each section gives the number of data pairs (azimuth, gain) describing the pattern. The azimuth relative to the boresight must cover the full range of azimuths. The elevation angle relative to the boresight must cover the range from 0° to 90° (assuming a symmetrical pattern in the 0° to -90° range). The gain for each panel is specified in dB relative to maximum (i.e. boresight) gain. An example of antenna pattern file is presented in Table 2.
While in the example, degree increments are evenly spaced at 10°, this need not be the case. Both the degree and dBi values can be up to four decimals.
Example of antenna pattern file
C-2.6.3 Antenna Boresight Azimuth - Antenna boresight azimuth shall be indicated in degrees clockwise from North.
C-2.7.1 The applicant shall provide map(s) (scale 1:50,000) locating each proposed antenna site with geographical co-ordinates (latitude and longitude).
C-2.7.2 The following maps shall be provided in hard copy and MapInfo MID/MIF electronic file format.
- a map showing the proposed coverage area;
- a comparative map showing the reference FRC as per the Allotment Plan vs the proposed/revised FRC;
- a comparative map showing the reference DSA as per the Allotment Plan vs the proposed/revised coverage area;
- a comparative map showing the proposed coverage vs the already authorized analog coverage and the proposed/revised DSA, if applicable.
For the purpose of this procedure, proposed DSA or FRC’s that exceed the reference published in the Allotment Plan are called revised DSA’s or FRC’s.
C-3.1 An applicant for a new DRB ensemble or for changes to an existing ensemble shall submit a notice to the local municipality(ies) where transmitters are located stating his or her intention to operate a DRB ensemble in the area. The purpose of this notice is to provide the municipal authority with an opportunity to consider the implication of the proposed antenna structure and site. The municipal authority may file a written objection to the proposed facilities with the appropriate departmental district office. The applicant and the municipal authority shall resolve all municipal problems and objections. Failing this, the Department will consider all factors pertaining to the application, as well as the municipal comments, and render a final decision.
C-3.2 The notice shall include the following information:
- a statement to indicate that a DRB ensemble is planned for the municipality and that, if approved, the operation of the ensemble would be subject to federal regulations for which a broadcasting licence from the CRTC and a broadcasting certificate from the Department are required;
- a map showing each transmitter site.
C-3.3 The notice is to be filed with each municipal authority with sufficient lead time to permit it to consider the impact of the proposal. Insufficient lead time could delay the processing of the application by the Department and may also cause the CRTC to reschedule this item for a later Public Hearing. A copy of the "Preliminary Environmental Information, Municipal/Land-Use Consultation and Aeronautical Site Clearance Attestation", reproduced in BPR-1, Appendix 3 is to be filed with the Department's headquarters office.
A copy of Transport Canada Form 26-0427 "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form" is also to be filed with the Department's headquarters office.
C-4.1 When the construction of the authorized facilities is complete, notice of on-air testing shall be given to the Director, Broadcasting Application Engineering at least three weeks (unless otherwise specified in the letter of authority) prior to transmission tests, with a copy to the pertinent district office. Departmental permission from the Director, Broadcasting Application Engineering is required for testing.
C-4.2 The required scope and duration of such on-air emission tests will depend to a large extent on the potential for interference that might be caused to existing broadcasting undertakings or other radio services. Such details of the testing shall be agreed upon with the Director, Broadcasting Application Engineering shortly before on-air testing begins.
C-4.3 Following successful on-air tests, the applicant's consultant shall certify to the Department that the T-DRB ensemble is ready to commence operation in accordance with the approved technical submission and request permission to commence normal broadcasting schedule.
The applicant wishing to use a DRB installation to provide non-broadcasting services should consult the following documents for guidance:
- Spectrum Policy SP-1452 entitled "Spectrum Policy Provisions to Permit the Use of Digital Radio Broadcasting Installations to Provide Non-Broadcasting Services", dated September 26, 1997, and available at http://www.ic.gc.ca/spectrum.
- Public Notice CRTC 1995-184 entitled "A Policy to Govern the Introduction of Digital Radio" published on October 29, 1995, and available at http://www.crtc.gc.ca/.
- Client Procedures Circular CPC-2-1-03 entitled "Licensing Radiocommunication Systems Using FM Subsidiary Communication Multiplex Operation (FM/SCMO) or Digital Radio Broadcasting (DRB) Installations" published on December 27, 1997, and available at http://www.ic.gc.ca/spectrum.
- Date modified: