RSS-182 — Maritime Radio Transmitters and Receivers in the Band 156-162.5 MHz
Issue 5, January 2012
Spectrum Management and Telecommunications
Radio Standards Specification
Radio Standards Specification RSS-182, Issue 5, Maritime Radio Transmitters and Receivers in the Band 156-162.5 MHz, replaces RSS-182, Issue 4, dated September 2003.
This document will be in force as of the publication of notice SMSE-001-12 in Canada Gazette, Part I. Upon publication, the public has 120 days to submit comments. Comments received will be taken into account in the preparation of the next version of the document.
Listed below are the changes:
- General reformatting and editorial changes have been made. Material common to most RSSs has been moved to RSS-Gen, General Requirements and Information for the Certification of Radio Apparatus.
- The "Licensing Requirements" section has been updated to clarify that on-board ship equipment is exempt from licensing requirements.
- Equipment with the designator "S" has been removed.
- The Automatic Identification System — Search and Rescue Transponder (AIS-SART) operating in the band 156-162.5 MHz has been added.
- All VHF radiotelephones, except portable VHF radiotelephones, are required to be GMDSS-compliant or GMDSS-compatible.
- Requirements for transmitters with transmit power not exceeding 120 mW have been removed.
- Requirements for a minimum standard of audio filter attenuation have been removed.
- Annex A (Data Modem Certification) has been removed. The requirements in this annex are included in RSS-310, Licence-exempt Radio Apparatus (All Frequency Bands): Category II Equipment.
- The spurious emission limit (using radiated measurement method) for receivers at frequencies above 1610 MHz has been removed. The 960-1610 MHz limit is now applicable to all receiver spurious emissions at frequencies above 960 MHz as per RSS-Gen.
- The requirement that RSS-Gen shall be used in conjunction with this issue of RSS-182 is stated.
- The list of related documents has been updated.
Issued under the authority of
the Minister of Industry
Engineering, Planning and Standards Branch
- General Requirements
- Certification Requirements
- Measurement Methods
- General Standard Specifications
- 6.1 User Manual
- Transmitter and Receiver
- 7.1 Frequency Plan and Channel Spacing
- 7.2 Required Operating Frequencies
- 7.3 Types of Modulation and Equipment Characteristics
- 7.4 Frequency Stability
- 7.5 Transmitter Output Powers
- 7.6 Transport Canada Specifications
- 7.7 VHF AIS Transponders
- 7.8 FM Modulation Limiting and Audio Low-Pass Filter for Coast Station Equipment (Voice Modulation)
- 7.9 Transmitter Unwanted Emissions
- 7.10 Data Modem
- 7.11 Receiver Spurious Emissions
This Radio Standards Specification (RSS) sets out the requirements for certification of transmitters and receivers in the maritime service in the band 156-162.5 MHz, including AIS—SART operating on AIS-1 and AIS-2.
Equipment certified under this standard is classified as Category I equipment and a technical acceptance certificate (TAC), issued by the Certification and Engineering Bureau of Industry Canada, or a certificate issued by a certification body (CB), is required.
Radio equipment covered by this standard is subject to licensing pursuant to subsection 4(1) of the Radiocommunication Act. However, in some cases, radio equipment that is operated on board a ship or vessel in the performance of the maritime service is exempt from licensing requirements pursuant to subsections 15.2, 34(1), 34(2) and 34.2 of the Radiocommunication Regulations. For further information, consult http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/h_sf01775.html.
Radio equipment required to be carried on Canadian ships is subject to regulations pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act, the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act and the Radiocommunication Act. Transport Canada is responsible for the Canada Shipping Act and the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act regulations relating to radio equipment.
Certification of equipment by Industry Canada signifies that the equipment has met the requirements of the above-mentioned Acts (refer to Section 4.3 for Transport Canada requirements). With respect to the requirements set by Transport Canada-Marine Safety, when equipment has already been type accepted by an Administration that is a party to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) as complying with the appropriate standards, its test report and acceptance certificate can be sent directly to Industry Canada with proof of type acceptance, name, address, telephone number and contact person of that Administration.
For equipment that has not been type accepted, proof that the equipment complies with the required standards and that it has passed the necessary tests should be submitted to Transport Canada-Marine Safety for review. (Note: Applicants may send the application fees for Industry Canada certification portion directly to Industry Canada.) Once the information has been reviewed, Transport Canada-Marine Safety forwards the test report with its evaluation result to the Certification and Engineering Bureau of Industry Canada. Proof of compliance submitted for Transport Canada-Marine Safety review shall be in the form of documentation issued by a classification society or a recognized independent testing establishment. See Section 2.4 for Transport Canada-Marine Safety’s contact information.
Four types of shipborne VHF radiotelephones are allowed in the maritime service depending upon the application. The applicable Transport Canada standards and the assigned designator for each type are identified in Table 4. The four types are the following:
- (a) VHF radiotelephones capable of DSC and compliant with the GMDSS;
- (b) VHF radiotelephones capable of DSC and compatible with the GMDSS;
- (c) portable VHF radiotelephones, with or without DSC; and
- (d) VHF radiotelephones for survival craft.
Inquiries concerning Transport Canada’s requirements should be directed to:
Manager, Navigation Safety and Radiocommunications
Marine Safety, Transport Canada
Tower C, Place de Ville
330 Sparks Street
Canada K1A 0N8
In addition to related documents specified in RSS-Gen, General Requirements and Information for the Certification of Radio Apparatus, the documents in the following sections should be consulted.
Any mention of a standard or document incorporated by reference refers to that standard or document as amended from time to time.
All Spectrum Management and Telecommunications publications are available on Industry Canada’s website at http://www.ic.gc.ca/spectrum, under Official Publications.
Copies of IMO resolutions may be obtained from:
International Maritime Organization
4, Albert Embankment
London, England, SE1 7SR
Tel: +44 (0)20 7735 7611
Copies of the ITU-R Radio Regulations and of the recommendations may be obtained from:
International Telecommunication Union
Place des Nations, CH-1211
Geneva 20, Switzerland
Tel: +41 22 730 6141 (English)
Tel: +41 22 730 6142 (French)
Copies of the IEC’s documents may be obtained from:
International Electrotechnical Commission
3, rue de Varembé
Tel: +41 22 919 02 11
Copies of the EN and I-ETS documents may be obtained from:
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
650, Route des Lucioles
06921 Sophia-Antipolis Cedex
Tel: +33 (0)4 92 94 42 00
Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime navigation safety communication system standardized by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and adopted by International Maritime Organization (IMO) that automatically provides vessel information, including the vessel’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigation status and other safety-related information, to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft; receives automatically such information from similarly fitted ships; monitors and tracks ships; and exchanges data with shore-based facilities.
Coast Station is a land station in the maritime mobile service.
Digital Selective Calling (DSC) is a synchronous system developed by the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R) Sector, used to establish contact with a station or groups of stations automatically by means of radio.
On-board Communication Station is a low-powered mobile station in the maritime mobile service intended for use for internal communications on board a ship, or between a ship and its lifeboats and liferafts during lifeboat drills or operations, or for communication with a group of vessels being towed or pushed, as well as for line handling and mooring instruction.
Ship Station is a mobile station in the maritime mobile service located on board a vessel which is not permanently moored, other than a survival craft.
RSS-182 shall be used in conjunction with RSS-Gen for general specifications and information relevant to the equipment for which this standard applies.
Applicants shall include, in the application for certification, a statement declaring that the radio equipment does not employ a modulation other than the internationally adopted modulation for maritime use when it operates on the distress and safety frequencies specified in Section 7.3.
All fixed DSC equipment shall comply with applicable IEC and/or EN standards. Furthermore, equipment must comply with the latest version of ITU-R Recommendation M.493, independent of the reference version stipulated in the applicable IEC and/or EN standards.
Only shipborne radio equipment requires approval from Transport Canada as meeting that department’s operational requirements before the applicant can submit the equipment to Industry Canada for certification; non-shipborne and coast station equipment do not. Transport Canada’s operational requirements for VHF radio equipment are summarized in Table 4.
Maritime radio equipment and VHF AIS transponders are required to be classified with equipment designators according to their capability and usage. The equipment designator will be added as a suffix to the equipment certificate number. Applicants must specify which type of equipment they want to apply for so that the appropriate designator can be assigned to the equipment certificate number.
Maritime radio equipment is classified with the following designators:
- (i) G to indicate IMO GMDSS compliance (see Section 7.6); and
- (ii) D to indicate IMO GMDSS compatible (see Section 7.6).
VHF AIS transponders are classified with the following designators:
- (i) A to indicate IMO compliance; and
- (ii) B to indicate the AIS equipment is compatible, but not compliant with Class A AIS equipment.
In addition to the measurement method described in RSS-Gen, the equipment’s unmodulated carrier frequency shall be measured under the conditions specified in Table 1. A sufficient stabilization period at each temperature shall be used prior to each frequency measurement.
|Equipment Type||Voltage Conditions|
|Type G protected from weather||–15°C||+20°C||+55°C|
|Type G portable equipment||–20°C||+20°C||+55°C|
|Type G exposed to weather||–25°C||+20°C||+55°C|
|Type D equipment||+20°C||–15°C, +20°C, +55°C||+20°C|
For FM or PM modulation, the transmitter carrier output power shall be measured with the unmodulated carrier. For single sideband emission (SSB), the peak envelope output power (PEP) shall be measured.
For equipment with voice audio input and FM modulation type, the transmitter shall be modulated with a 2.5 kHz tone at a voltage level 16 dB higher than that required to produce 50% of the desired frequency deviation.
If the radio terminal has a data port, the user manual shall contain the manufacturer's technical parameters for interfacing external data sources, as follows:
- (a) the input voltage (volts peak-to-peak) required from a modem for proper modulation;
- (b) the maximum recommended data rate; and
- (c) the designed impedance for this port.
The channel spacing for maritime VHF radio communication is 25 kHz. However, equipment with a spacing of 12.5 kHz is permitted provided that the equipment has a mode which can inter-operate with the 25 kHz standard channel spacing and that the equipment complies with all technical requirements of this RSS.
The channel frequency plan for Canadian maritime radiocommunications, based on the 25 kHz channel spacing, is set forth in RBR-2 and the frequency plan for international maritime radiocommunications is set forth in Appendix 18 of the ITU’s Radio Regulations.
Equipment for radiotelephony used in survival craft stations shall be able to transmit and receive standard IMO class G3E emissions on the 156.8 MHz (channel 16, distress) frequency and at least one other frequency in the band 156-162.5 MHz.
Equipment for radiotelephony used in ships other than survival craft shall be able to transmit and receive standard IMO class G3E emissions on the 156.8 MHz (channel 16, distress), 156.3 MHz (channel 6, inter-ship safety) and 156.65 MHz (channel 13, bridge-to-bridge) frequencies, as well as on all the frequencies necessary for their service.
VHF radiotelephone equipment designated with a “D” shall be able to transmit and receive standard IMO class G3E/F3E emissions on the 156.8 MHz (channel 16, distress), 156.3 MHz (channel 6, inter-ship safety) and 156.65 MHz (channel 13, bridge-to-bridge) frequencies, as well as on all the frequencies necessary for their service.
DSC equipment shall be able to transmit and receive standard IMO class G2B emissions on the 156.525 MHz (channel 70) frequency.
VHF radiocommunication shall employ G3E or F3E modulation for voice communication and G2B for DSC signals.
Maritime VHF transceivers shall have the following characteristics:
- (a) 25 kHz channel spacing;
- (b) frequency modulation with a pre-emphasis of 6 dB/octave (phase modulation (PM)) shall be used;
- (c) the frequency deviation corresponding to 100% modulation shall approach ±5 kHz as nearly as practicable and in no event shall the frequency deviation exceed ±5 kHz;
- (d) the audio-frequency band shall be 3000 Hz;
- (e) the authorized channel bandwidth for voice shall be 16 kHz; and
- (f) the authorized channel bandwidth for data shall be 20 kHz.
Equipment having channel spacing less than 25 kHz, or modulation techniques other than PM/FM will be permitted in Canada provided that the radio equipment has a mode to inter-operate with the current IMO standard FM channels of 16 kHz authorized bandwidth. In addition, the operating frequencies shall comply with the frequency plan specified in RBR-2. Such equipment shall not use narrowband modulation for distress or safety channels or for channels affecting the safety of international shipping, including:
With the exception of DSC emissions, the RF carrier frequency shall not depart from the reference frequency in excess of the limits listed in Table 2.
|Type of Equipment||Frequency Stability Limit|
|Coast stations||±10.0 ppm for transmitter power less than 3 watts
±5.0 ppm for transmitter power between 3 and 100 watts
±2.5 ppm for transmitter power exceeding 100 watts
|Ship stations||±10 ppm|
The output power shall be within ±1.0 dB of the manufacturer's rated power and not exceed the limits listed in Table 3, unless indicated otherwise.
Table 3 lists typical transmitter output powers for equipment certified under this standard.
|Coast stations||50 W|
|Hand-held portable transmitters||5 W|
|Survival two-way radiotelephones||Should have a minimum e.i.r.p. of 0.25 watts|
Ship station transmitters shall have power control features implemented to reduce the carrier power to one watt or less for use at short ranges, except for DSC equipment operating on the 156.525 MHz (channel 70) frequency, for which the power reduction facility is optional.
The VHF radio transmitters shall be equipped with an automatic timing device that deactivates the transmitter and reverts the transmitter to the receive mode after an uninterrupted transmission period of five minutes, plus or minus 10 percent. Furthermore, these transmitters shall have a device that indicates when the automatic timer has deactivated the transmitter.
Transport Canada’s operational requirements for VHF radio equipment are summarized in Table 4.
VHF DSC equipment that meets the European standard EN 301 025 or IEC standard 62238 is certified as GMDSS-compatible but not GMDSS-compliant, as it does not fully meet the relevant IMO standards.
All VHF radiotelephone models, with the exception of portable equipment, shall be GMDSS-compliant or meet the requirements of either IEC 62238 or EN 301 025 (GMDSS-compatible).
|Equipment Designator||Type of Marine VHF Radio Equipment||Applicable International or ETSI StandardsFootnote 2|
|G||VHF radiotelephone capable of DSC and GMDSS compliant (International SOLAS)||IMO A.803 and A.694 and
IEC 61097-7 for Radiotelephone
IEC 61097-3 for DSC
IEC 61097-8 for Watchreceivers
EN 300 338 for DSC
EN 301 033 for Watchreceivers
ETS 300 162 for Radiotelephone
|VHF radiotelephone for survival craft (GMDSS type)||IMO MSC 149(77), IMO A.694 and IEC 61097-12 tested under IEC 60945 or ETS 300 225|
|D||VHF radiotelephone with DSC and compatible with the GMDSS (allowed on domestic ships, but does not meet SOLAS standards)||EN 301 025
|n/a||Portable VHF radiotelephone capable of distress alerting on VHF channel 70||IMO MSC/Circ.862, ITU-R M.493 and IEC 61162|
|n/a||Portable VHF radiotelephone (voice only)||Portable VHF radiotelephone not capable of DSC|
|A||AIS VHF transponder Class A||ITU 1371, IEC 61993-2 IMO Resolution MSC.74, Annex 3|
|B||AIS VHF transponder Class B||IEC 62287-1 or IEC 62287-2 and ITU 1371|
The VHF AIS equipment shall comply with the following characteristics.
162.025 MHz (channel 88B)
0.25 max. for 12.5 kHz channel spacing
Coast station transmitters shall be equipped with a limiter followed by an audio low-pass filter. A 6 dB pre-emphasis network is required; it is to be connected before the deviation limiter in the transmit path.
Equipment with 25 kHz channel spacing (equipment designator G and D) shall comply with emission mask B. Radio equipment with 12.5 kHz channel spacing, with or without an audio low-pass filter, shall comply with emission mask C.
This mask is for FM or PM modulation equipment with 25 kHz channel spacing, an authorized bandwidth of 16 kHz for voice or 20 kHz for data, and equipped with or without an audio low-pass filter. The power of any emission shall be attenuated below the transmitter output power (P, in dBW) as follows:
- (a) on any frequency removed from the carrier frequency by more than 50%, but not more than 100% of the authorized bandwidth: at least 25 dB, measured with a bandwidth of 300 Hz;
- (b) on any frequency removed from the carrier frequency by more than 100%, but not more than 250% of the authorized bandwidth: at least 35 dB, measured with a bandwidth of 300 Hz; and
- (c) on any frequency removed from the carrier frequency by more than 250% of the authorized bandwidth: at least 43 + 10 log10 p(watts) dB, measured with a bandwidth of 30 kHz.
This mask is for equipment with channel spacing of 12.5 kHz, an authorized bandwidth of 11.25 kHz, equipped with or without an audio low-pass filter. The power of any emission shall be attenuated below the transmitter power (P, in dBW) as follows:
- (a) on any frequency removed from the carrier frequency fc up to a displacement frequency of 5.625 kHz: 0 dB, measured with a bandwidth of 100 Hz;
- (b) on any frequency removed from the carrier frequency by a displacement frequency (fd in kHz) of more than 5.625 kHz, but no more than 12.5 kHz: at least 7.27 (fd - 2.88 kHz) dB, measured with a bandwidth of 100 Hz; and
- (c) on any frequency removed from the carrier frequency by a displacement frequency (fd in kHz) of more than 12.5 kHz: at least 50 + 10 log10 p(watts) dB or 70 dB, whichever is the lesser attenuation, measured with a bandwidth of 100 Hz for a displacement frequency of more than 12.5 kHz, but no more than 50 kHz, and measured with a bandwidth of 10 kHz for a displacement frequency of more than 50 kHz.
A radio terminal’s internal data modem shall contain the level adjustment and pulse shaping circuitry. The modem shall be tested and must comply with the masks in Section 7.9 that are appropriate to the data rate. External data modems can be certified as stand-alone equipment using the procedures in RSS-310.
The receiver spurious emission shall comply with the limits specified in RSS-Gen.
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