Commercial Mobile Spectrum Outlook

5. Conclusion

The rapid growth of commercial mobile services presents significant economic and social benefits for Canada. This growth is also increasing the amount of spectrum required to deliver these services in Canada. Various projections estimate that Canada will require at least 473 MHz — and perhaps as much as 820 MHz of spectrum — to be allocated to commercial mobile services by 2017 in order to keep up with projected growth. The wide variation in these projections is a result of different assumptions regarding efficiency improvements, network investments and data traffic growth. Industry Canada has set an objective of allocating a total of 750 MHz of spectrum to commercial mobile services by the end of 2017. Taking into account the already-announced auctions of spectrum in the 700 MHz and 2500 MHz bands, Canada currently has plans in place to have a total of 528 MHz of spectrum available for commercial mobile services by 2015. This means that at least 222 MHz of spectrum will have to be allocated to commercial mobile services over the next five years in order to meet this objective.

Industry Canada’s analysis of candidate bands to meet this objective is based primarily on a combination of the following considerations: (1) the current use of the band in Canada; (2) the suitability of the band to support new services as well as the potential availability of equipment; and (3) international harmonization. Based on this analysis, Industry Canada has identified 300 to 415 MHz of additional spectrum that could be the source for the additional 222 MHz needed for commercial mobile services by 2017 (see Figure 10 and Table 3). However, any specific decisions to reallocate these bands would be subject to full public consultations.

The rapid growth in commercial mobile services is also increasing demand for spectrum to support wireless backhaul services. Overall, Industry Canada believes that the 21 GHz of backhaul spectrum available is sufficient to support the growing wireless sector until 2017. However, while the overall amount of spectrum may be adequate, finding sufficient spectrum in mid-range frequency bands (11-23 GHz) capable of handling increasingly large data rates and throughput to cover longer distances remains a challenge. As a result, Industry Canada is consulting stakeholders to obtain their feedback on additional spectrum requirements across frequency ranges, as well as on updated policies and technical requirements developed to increase efficiency, flexibility and the utilization of all backhaul spectrum.

Wi-Fi is playing an increasingly important role in the deployment of wireless networks by offloading data traffic from cellular networks onto wired networks. It is estimated that by 2015, Wi-Fi networks will carry half of all Internet traffic. As a result, spectrum bands reserved for licence-exempt equipment can be expected to become increasingly congested over the next five years. Industry Canada is taking steps to provide additional spectrum for licence-exempt equipment. The Department recently announced its decision to allow the use of TV white spaces, and Canada is joining other countries in examining the potential of making additional spectrum available in the 5 GHz range for use by licence-exempt equipment.

Beyond 2017, mobile data traffic will undoubtedly continue to grow, likely resulting in additional spectrum requirements for commercial mobile services, backhaul and licence-exempt equipment. However, given the rapid pace of technological change — particularly technologies which could have dramatic consequences for spectrum use efficiency, network architecture and consumer behaviour — it is difficult to make credible forecasts. It is conceivable that at least 1000 MHz of mobile broadband spectrum will be required by the start of the next decade. As a result, Industry Canada will continue to monitor developments, both in Canada and abroad, and will update this plan following the auction of spectrum in the 700 MHz and 2500 MHz bands, and the 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference.

Figure 10: Possible Timeline for the Release and Availability of Spectrum to Support Commercial Mobile Services1
Chart: Possible Timeline for the Release and Availability of Spectrum to Support Commercial Mobile Services [Description of Figure 10]

Notes:

1. This possible timeline is based on available information and is therefore subject to change. Specific decisions with respect to individual bands will be subject to separate and comprehensive consultations with stakeholders.

2. These years of the possible timeline reflect uncertainty over the amount of spectrum that will be available in the 600 MHz and 3500 MHz bands, as well as the timing of decisions in other countries.

3. Depending on the region of the country, between 60 and 120 MHz of spectrum in the 2500 MHz (BRS) band is currently available for commercial mobile services. The remaining spectrum will be auctioned in 2014, bringing the total amount of spectrum available in the BRS Band to 190 MHz in all regions.

Table 3: Possible Timeline for the Release and Availability of Spectrum to Support Commercial Mobile Services1
  2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-20172
  (MHz)
Currently deployed 330-400 330-400 330-400 330-400 330-400
700 MHz auction 68 68 68 68
2500 MHz auction3     60-120 60-120 60-120
WCS   20 20 20 20
AWS 4 40 40 40
AWS 3       50 50
AWS 2         10
3500 MHz         100-175
600 MHz         80-120
TOTAL 330-400 418‑488 588 638 828-943

Notes:

1. This possible timeline is based on available information and is therefore subject to change. Specific decisions with respect to individual bands will be subject to separate and comprehensive consultations with stakeholders.

2. These years of the possible timeline reflect uncertainty over the amount of spectrum that will be available in the 600 MHz and 3500 MHz bands, as well as the timing of decisions in other countries.

3. Depending on the region of the country, between 60 and 120 MHz of spectrum in the 2500 MHz (BRS) band is currently available for commercial mobile services. The remaining spectrum will be auctioned in 2014, bringing the total amount of spectrum available in the BRS Band to 190 MHz in all regions.

Annex A: Alternative Methodology for Forecasting Future Mobile Commercial Spectrum Use

The intensity of spectrum use is geographically non-uniform — the spectrum demand for less densely populated areas not as high as it is for more metropolitan areas. There are less-populated areas of Canada where the cellular spectrum (licensed almost 30 years ago) is not yet used. Furthermore, there are many rural and lower population density areas where the PCS spectrum (licensed 10 to17 years ago) is also not completely used today. The peak demand for spectrum is in the large metropolitan areas (such as areas including Greater Toronto, Vancouver, Montréal, etc.). Therefore, the forecasting for spectrum use must be focused in these areas of high demand.

In these metro areas, all of the available cellular and PCS spectrum is being used by mature wireless networks, which achieved full coverage many years or even decades ago. Additional sites are only being deployed in these areas in order to increase the available wireless capacity. Wireless service providers operating in these bands are continuing to deploy new cell sites in order to optimize the balance between the available spectrum, number of sites and traffic demand (i.e., this occurs when there is no idle spectrum in the metro areas, so additional sites are needed).

The spectrum usage for 2011 can be used as a baseline for evaluating future spectrum demand. The PCS and cellular operators in the metro areas had just started to deploy LTE in the AWS band, so virtually all of their traffic was carried over cellular and PCS spectrum — the total amount of spectrum used was 170 MHz. Due to the very large market share of these operators (defined as incumbents) and the typical profile of their users (including most of the high data users), the 170 MHz figure can be used as a baseline for the spectrum usage for the entire wireless industry in 2011. To also account for traffic generated and spectrum used by non-incumbent service providers, 5 MHz was added to the baseline spectrum use — this represents approximately three percent of total use in 2011.

Of the 175 MHz total of all spectrum used in 2011, it was assumed that around thirty percent (52 MHz) was used for voice services, while the balance of 123 MHz was assumed to be used for mobile data. In line with other international forecasts, the amount of spectrum used for voice services is assumed to remain approximately constant, while rapid growth is expected in the traffic demand for mobile data.

The future spectrum use for mobile data services can be estimated based on the spectrum used for mobile data in 2011 (123 MHz, as mentioned above) and by applying correction factors for:

  • Increase in mobile data traffic. In the 2012 VNI Report for Canada, Cisco forecasts a 1.51 CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) for Canada through 2017.
  • Additional wireless sites deployed.
    • Based on the departmental database, between 2008 and 2012, the average growth rate for total unique sites in Canada, relative to 2011, is 1.08.
    • Most of the new sites in the metro areas are small cells, microcells, picocells, etc. The heterogeneous networks architectures, with cells of various sizes, include multiple layers (macro coverage layer, pico capacity layer, etc). The small cells cannot operate over the entire available spectrum, as they would interfere with the macro cells overlay. It is assumed that the small cells would only operate over half of the available spectrum, thus the efficiency factor gained from these new sites is half of the growth rate in site deployments.
    • Furthermore, since the traffic demand is highest in metro areas, it was assumed that a majority of the new sites are added in these areas (non-uniform growth). If the growth rate for rural areas is assumed to be six percent, the metro CAGR will be ten percent, for an overall average of eight percent, as described above.
    • The ten percent growth rate for the metropolitan areas is the figure used to evaluate the impact on spectrum demand. Again, this is a conservative assumption.
  • Increase in spectral efficiency due to advancements in wireless technology. The same figures were used as in the FCC study.Footnote 72 A linear extrapolation was used for forecasting beyond 2014 (see Table A1).
    Table A1
    Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
    * Linearly extrapolated.
    Average Spectral Efficiency [bps/Hz] 0.88 1 1.13 1.25 1.37* 1.49* 1.61*
  • Wi-Fi offloading. In the 2012 VNI Report, Cisco reports that in 2012, a total of 33 percent of mobile data traffic was offloaded to Wi-Fi networks in Canada. Cisco forecasts this figure to grow to 46% in 2017. As a result, Industry Canada estimated total spectrum demand under two scenarios: the first scenario assumes no change in the ratio of traffic offloaded to Wi-Fi networks (constant at 33 percent), while the second scenario assumes an increase in traffic offloading, as forecasted by Cisco.

The amounts calculated as above are plotted in Section 3, Figure 6.

It should be noted that this estimate is based on forward‑looking assumptions, which may not materialize. Like any other forecast, the end results are strongly influenced by the assumptions made.


Footnotes

Footnote 1

See the Radiocommunication Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. R-2 (http://www.laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/R-2/page-1.html).

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

A full version of Industry Canada’s 2007 Spectrum Policy Framework for Canada is available online (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf08776.html).

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Recent and ongoing public consultations can be viewed online (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/h_sf08436.html).

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

A complete list of official publications is available online (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/h_sf01841.html).

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

See the Radiocommunication Act (http://www.laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/R-2/page-1.html).

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

A full list of arrangements can be found online. See Industry Canada’s Coordination and Use of Radio Frequencies (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf01238.html).

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

See the full version of Industry Canada’s document entitled Radio Spectrum Inventory: A 2010 Snapshot — Canada (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10023.html).

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

A full version of the RedMobile 2011-2015 Study of Future Demand for Radio Spectrum in Canada is available online (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10253.html).

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

This data is taken from ComScore’s publication entitled 2012 Mobile Future in Focus (http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Presentations_Whitepapers/2012/ 2012_Mobile_Future_in_Focus).

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

View the March 2010 Ericsson news release entitled "Mobile data traffic surpasses voice" (http://www.ericsson.com/news/1396928).

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

See the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission’s August 2011 report entitled Navigating Convergence II: Charting Canadian Communications Change and Regulatory Implications 2011 (http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/rp1108.htm).

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

See Cisco’s Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2012–2017 (http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/ white_paper_c11-520862.pdf).

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

These figures are taken from Cisco’s VNI Mobile Forecast Highlights, 2012-2017 (http://www.cisco.com/web/solutions/sp/vni/vni_mobile_forecast_highlight/index.html#~Country) and can be found by filtering by country and selecting Canada.

Return to footnote 13 referrer

Footnote 14

See RedMobile’s Study of Future Demand for Radio Spectrum in Canada (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10253.html).

Return to footnote 14 referrer

Footnote 15

See RedMobile’s Study of Future Demand for Radio Spectrum in Canada (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10253.html), page 42.

Return to footnote 15 referrer

Footnote 16

See Cisco’s Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2012–2017 (http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.pdf).

Return to footnote 16 referrer

Footnote 17

See the FCC’s 2010 report entitled Mobile Broadband:The Benefits of Additional Spectrum (http://download.broadband.gov/plan/fcc-omnibus-broadband-initiative-%28obi%29-technical-paper-mobile-broadband-benefits-of-additional-spectrum.pdf).

Return to footnote 17 referrer

Footnote 18

The full ACMA document, Towards 2020 — Future spectrum requirements for mobile broadband, is available online (http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib312084/ifc13_2011_toward_2020-future_spectrum_requirements.pdf).

Return to footnote 18 referrer

Footnote 19

Through the Spectrum Utilization Policy, Decisions on the Band 25.25-28.35 GHz, Industry Canada opened the lower and upper portions of the band 25.25-28.35 GHz (25.25-26.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz) for fixed systems (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10028.html). With the release of Decisions on the Frequency Bands 71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz and 92-95 GHz, Industry Canada introduced fixed radio systems in the frequency bands 71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95 GHz (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10395.html).

Return to footnote 19 referrer

Footnote 20

See pages 83-84 of RedMobile’s Study of Future Demand for Radio Spectrum in Canada (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10253.html).

Return to footnote 20 referrer

Footnote 21

See the full Frequency Band Review for Fixed Wireless Service report (http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/spectrum-review/annexes/report.pdf).

Return to footnote 21 referrer

Footnote 22

See ACMA’s May 2012 publication entitled Five-year spectrum outlook: 2012–2016 (http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib410220/five-year_spectrum_outlook_2012-2016.pdf).

Return to footnote 22 referrer

Footnote 23

The FCC allowed Fixed Services to share the 6875-7125 MHz and 12700-13150 MHz bands currently used by the Broadcast Auxiliary Service (BAS) and the Cable Television Relay Service (CARS), in areas where there are no licensed TV pickup operations. See the August 2011 Amendment of Part 101 of the Commission’s Rules to Facilitate the Use of Microwave for Wireless Backhaul and Other Uses and to Provide Additional Flexibility to Broadcast Auxiliary Service and Operational Fixed Microwave Licensees, WT Docket No. 10-153, FCC 11-120 (http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-11-120A1.pdf).

Return to footnote 23 referrer

Footnote 24

See Industry Canada's 2012 Consultation on Spectrum Utilization Policies and Technical Requirements Related to Backhaul Spectrum in Various Bands, Including Bands Shared With Satellite, Mobile and Other Services (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10533.html).

Return to footnote 24 referrer

Footnote 25

Femtocells and picocells, which are low-power base stations, use licensed spectrum to provide for enhanced coverage and capacity in areas of high data usage and weak signal levels — for example, in homes, shopping centres, train stations and airports.

Return to footnote 25 referrer

Footnote 26

See the section marked AT&T Wi-Fi Basic (http://www.att.com/gen/general?pid=5949).

Return to footnote 26 referrer

Footnote 27

See the Wireless Broadband Alliance’s 2011 report entitled Global developments in Public Wi-Fi (http://www.wballiance.com/wba/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2012/07/16_WBA-Industry-Report-2011-_Global-Developments-in-Public-Wi-Fi-1.00.pdf).

Return to footnote 27 referrer

Footnote 28

Ibid.

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Footnote 29

Ibid.

Return to footnote 29 referrer

Footnote 30

The representative body of the mobile industry is the GSM Association; the representative body of the Wi-Fi industry is the Wireless Broadband Alliance. The Wi-Fi Alliance is an industry body that is responsible for certification.

Return to footnote 30 referrer

Footnote 31

This data is taken from Cisco’s 2012 document entitled Cisco Service Provider Wi-Fi: Offload Mobile Data and Create New Services (http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns524/ns673/solution_overview_c22-642482.html).

Return to footnote 31 referrer

Footnote 32

The 5 GHz range refers to 5150-5350 MHz and 5470-5725 MHz. In Canada, the frequency range 5600-5650 MHz is not available for RLAN use.

Return to footnote 32 referrer

Footnote 33

Older versions of the Wi-Fi standard only support 20 MHz channels.

Return to footnote 33 referrer

Footnote 34

See page 178 of RedMobile’s Study of Future Demand for Radio Spectrum in Canada (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10253.html).

Return to footnote 34 referrer

Footnote 35

See Industry Canada’s 2012 Framework for the Use of Certain Non-broadcasting Applications in the Television Broadcasting Bands Below 698 MHz (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10497.html).

Return to footnote 35 referrer

Footnote 36

See Industry Canada’s document entitled Radio Spectrum Inventory: A 2010 Snapshot — Canada (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10023.html). Note that the total amount of spectrum identified in the Inventory for commercial mobile includes the entire 190 MHz of spectrum in the 2500 MHz band; however, some will be returned to Industry Canada for auction in 2014.

Return to footnote 36 referrer

Footnote 37

See Industry Canada’s 2006 document entitled Policy Provisions for the Band 2500-2690 MHz to Facilitate Future Mobile Service (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf08551.html).

Return to footnote 37 referrer

Footnote 38

See Industry Canada’s 2012 Consultation on a Policy, Technical and Licensing Framework for Use of the Public Safety Broadband Spectrum in the Bands 758-763 MHz and 788-793 MHz (D Block) and 763-768 MHz and 793-798 MHz (PSBB Block) (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10459.html).

Return to footnote 38 referrer

Footnote 39

Copies of the ITU’s International Radio Regulations can be obtained from the ITU website (http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR).

Return to footnote 39 referrer

Footnote 40

See Industry Canada’s 2012 Extension of Implementation of Spectrum Usage Deadline for 2300 MHz Licences (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10351.html).

Return to footnote 40 referrer

Footnote 41

See Industry Canada’s 2012 Consultation on Renewal Process for 2300 MHz and 3500 MHz Licences (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10492.html).

Return to footnote 41 referrer

Footnote 42

See Figure 8 for a band chart.

Return to footnote 42 referrer

Footnote 43

See the FCC’s December 2012 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FCC 12-152) (http://www.fcc.gov/document/aws-1915-19201995-2000-mhz-h-block-nprm-adopted).

Return to footnote 43 referrer

Footnote 44

See the United States Government Public Law 112-96, enacted February 2012, entitled Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-112publ96/pdf/PLAW-112publ96.pdf).

Return to footnote 44 referrer

Footnote 45

See the FCC’s December 2012 Report and Order and Order of Proposed Modification (FCC 12-151) (http://www.fcc.gov/document/aws-2000-20202180-2200-mhz-aws-4-order-adopted).

Return to footnote 45 referrer

Footnote 46

See the FCC’s December 2012 Report and Order and Order of Proposed Modification (FCC 12-151) (http://www.fcc.gov/document/aws-2000-20202180-2200-mhz-aws-4-order-adopted).

Return to footnote 46 referrer

Footnote 47

See Industry Canada’s August 2011 Gazette Notice SMSE-012-11 — Consultation on a Policy and Technical Framework for the Use of Non-Broadcasting Applications in the Television Broadcasting Bands Below 698 MHz (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10050.html).

Return to footnote 47 referrer

Footnote 48

See Industry Canada’s October 2012 Gazette Notice SMSE-012-12 — Framework for the Use of Certain Non-broadcasting Applications in the Television Broadcasting Bands Below 698 MHz (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10497.html).

Return to footnote 48 referrer

Footnote 49

See the United States Government Public Law 112-96, enacted February 2012, entitled Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-112publ96/pdf/PLAW-112publ96.pdf).

Return to footnote 49 referrer

Footnote 50

See the FCC’s October 2012 Broadcast Television Spectrum Incentive Auction NPRM (http://www.fcc.gov/document/broadcast-television-spectrum-incentive-auction-nprm).

Return to footnote 50 referrer

Footnote 51

See Industry Canada’s 2008 Interim Agreement Between Canada and the U.S. Concerning Digital Television (DTV) (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf09177.html).

Return to footnote 51 referrer

Footnote 52

See Industry Canada’s 2012 Consultation on Renewal Process for 2300 MHz and 3500 MHz Licences (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10470.html).

Return to footnote 52 referrer

Footnote 53

This data can be found using Industry Canada’s Spectrum Direct webpage (http://sd.ic.gc.ca/pls/engdoc_anon/sic_browser$.startup).

Return to footnote 53 referrer

Footnote 54

Copies of the ITU’s International Radio Regulations can be obtained from the ITU website (http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR).

Return to footnote 54 referrer

Footnote 55

For more information, see the National Broadband Plan (http://www.broadband.gov).

Return to footnote 55 referrer

Footnote 56

See the FCC’s December 2012 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Notice of Inquiry (FCC 12-148) (http://www.fcc.gov/document/enabling-innovative-small-cell-use-35-ghz-band-nprm-order) .

Return to footnote 56 referrer

Footnote 57

See PCAST’s 2012 Report to the President: Realizing the Full Potential of Government-Held Spectrum to Spur Economic Growth (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ pcast_spectrum_report_final_july_20_2012.pdf).

Return to footnote 57 referrer

Footnote 58

For more information, see the December 2011 ECC Decision (11)06: Harmonised frequency arrangements for mobile/fixed communications networks (MFCN) operating in the bands 3400-3600 MHz and 3600-3800 MHz(http://www.erodocdb.dk/docs/doc98/official/pdf/ECCDec1106.pdf).

Return to footnote 58 referrer

Footnote 59

See CEPT’s October 2011 newsletter article entitled "ECC launches major review of an attractive band of spectrum" (http://apps.ero.dk/eccnews/oct-2011/attractive-spectrum.html).

Return to footnote 59 referrer

Footnote 60

See ACMA’s 2012 document entitled Planning for mobile broadband within the 1.5 GHz mobile band (http://acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD.PC/pc=PC_410368).

Return to footnote 60 referrer

Footnote 61

Copies of the ITU’s International Radio Regulations can be obtained from the ITU website (http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR).

Return to footnote 61 referrer

Footnote 62

Copies of the ITU’s International Radio Regulations can be obtained from the ITU website (http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR).

Return to footnote 62 referrer

Footnote 63

See Industry Canada's 2012 Consultation on Spectrum Utilization Policies and Technical Requirements Related to Backhaul Spectrum in Various Bands, Including Bands Shared With Satellite, Mobile and Other Services (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10533.html).

Return to footnote 63 referrer

Footnote 64

See Industry Canada's 2012 Consultation on Spectrum Utilization Policies and Technical Requirements Related to Backhaul Spectrum in Various Bands, Including Bands Shared With Satellite, Mobile and Other Services (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10533.html).

Return to footnote 64 referrer

Footnote 65

See ITU’s 2001 Radio Regulations: Resolutions and Recommendations (http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/oth/02/02/S02020000194503PDFE.pdf).

Return to footnote 65 referrer

Footnote 66

See Ofcom’s 2008 Summary of auction results (http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/spectrum/spectrum-awards/completed-awards/results.pdf).

Return to footnote 66 referrer

Footnote 67

See the United States Government Public Law 112-96, enacted February 2012, entitled Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-112publ96/pdf/PLAW-112publ96.pdf).

Return to footnote 67 referrer

Footnote 68

See the NTIA’s January 2013 report entitled Evaluation of the 5350‑5470 MHz and 5850‑5925 MHz Bands Pursuant to Section 6406(b) of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/ntia_5_ghz_report_01-25-2013.pdf).

Return to footnote 68 referrer

Footnote 69

See the Computer World September 2012 article entitled “Proposed EU radio reshuffle could mean more spectrum for 5 GHz Wi-Fi" (http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9230879/ Proposed_EU_radio_reshuffle_could_mean_more_spectrum_for_5GHz_Wi_Fi).

Return to footnote 69 referrer

Footnote 70

See the NTIA’s January 2013 report entitled Evaluation of the 5350‑5470 MHz and 5850‑5925 MHz Bands Pursuant to Section 6406(b) of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/ntia_5_ghz_report_01-25-2013.pdf).

Return to footnote 70 referrer

Footnote 71

See the Computer World September 2012 article entitled "Proposed EU radio reshuffle could mean more spectrum for 5 GHz Wi‑Fi" (http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9230879/ Proposed_EU_radio_reshuffle_could_mean_more_spectrum _for_5GHz_Wi_Fi).

Return to footnote 71 referrer

Footnote 72

See the FCC’s 2010 publication entitled Mobile Broadband: The Benefits of Additional Spectrum (http://download.broadband.gov/plan/fcc-omnibus-broadband-initiative-%28obi%29-technical-paper-mobile-broadband-benefits-of-additional-spectrum.pdf).

Return to footnote 72 referrer