# RIC-8 — Advanced Qualification Question Bank for Amateur Radio Operator Certificate

**A-007-01-01 (3)**

For an antenna tuner of the "Transformer" type, which of the
following statements is **False**?

- The input is suitable for 50 ohm impedance
- The output is suitable for impedances from low to high
- The circuit is known as a Pi-type antenna tuner (transmatch)
- The circuit is known as a transformertype antenna tuner (transmatch)

**A-007-01-02 (4)**

For an antenna tuner of the "Series"
type, which of the following statements
is **False**?

- The circuit is known as a Series-type antenna tuner (transmatch)
- The output is suitable for impedances from low to high
- The input is suitable for impedance of 50 ohms
- The circuit is known as a Pi-type antenna tuner (transmatch)

**A-007-01-03 (3)**

For an antenna tuner of the "L" type,
which of the following statements is **False**?

- The transmitter input is suitable for 50 ohms impedance
- The antenna output is high impedance
- The circuit is suitable for matching to a vertical groundplane antenna
- The circuit is known as an L-type antenna tuner (transmatch)

**A-007-01-04 (3)**

For an antenna tuner of the "Pi" type,
which of the following statements is **False**?

- The transmitter input is suitable for impedance of 50 ohms
- The antenna output is suitable for impedances from low to high
- The circuit is a series-type antenna tuner (transmatch)
- The circuit is a Pi-type antenna tuner (transmatch)

**A-007-01-05 (3)**

What is a pi-network?

- An antenna matching network that is isolated from ground
- A network consisting of four inductors or four capacitors
- A network consisting of one inductor and two capacitors or two inductors and one capacitor
- A power incidence network

**A-007-01-06 (3)**

Which type of network offers the
greatest transformation ratio?

- Chebyshev
- Butterworth
- Pi-network
- L-network

**A-007-01-07 (2)**

Why is an L-network of limited utility in
impedance matching?

- It is thermally unstable
- It matches only a small impedance range
- It is prone to self-resonance
- It has limited power handling capability

**A-007-01-08 (3)**

How does a network transform one
impedance to another?

- It produces transconductance to cancel the reactive part of an impedance
- It introduces negative resistance to cancel the resistive part of an impedance
- It cancels the reactive part of an impedance and changes the resistive part
- Network resistances substitute for load resistances

**A-007-01-09 (1)**

What advantage does a pi-L network
have over a pi-network for impedance
matching between a vacuum tube linear
amplifier and a multiband antenna?

- Greater harmonic suppression
- Higher efficiency
- Lower losses
- Greater transformation range

**A-007-01-10 (3)**

Which type of network provides the
greatest harmonic suppression?

- Inverse pi-network
- Pi-network
- Pi-L network
- L-network

**A-007-01-11 (3)**

Which three types of networks are most
commonly used to match an RF power
amplifier to a transmission line?

- T, M and Q
- M, pi and T
- L, pi and pi-L
- L, M and C

**A-007-02-01 (3)**

What kind of impedance does a quarter
wavelength transmission line present to
the source when the line is shorted at the
far end?

- The same as the characteristic impedance of the transmission line
- The same as the output impedance of the source
- A very high impedance
- A very low impedance

**A-007-02-02 (4)**

What kind of impedance does a quarter
wavelength transmission line present to
the source if the line is open at the far
end?

- A very high impedance
- The same as the output impedance of the source
- The same as the characteristic impedance of the transmission line
- A very low impedance

**A-007-02-03 (3)**

What kind of impedance does a half
wavelength transmission line present to
the source when the line is open at the
far end?

- The same as the characteristic impedance of the transmission line
- The same as the output impedance of the source
- A very high impedance
- A very low impedance

**A-007-02-04 (3)**

What kind of impedance does a half
wavelength transmission line present to
the source when the line is shorted at the
far end?

- A very high impedance
- The same as the characteristic impedance of the transmission line
- A very low impedance
- The same as the output impedance of the source

**A-007-02-05 (3)**

What is the velocity factor of a
transmission line?

- The velocity of the wave on the transmission line multiplied by the velocity of light in a vacuum
- The index of shielding for coaxial cable
- The velocity of the wave on the transmission line divided by the velocity of light
- The ratio of the characteristic impedance of the line to the terminating impedance

**A-007-02-06 (4)**

What is the term for the ratio of the
actual velocity at which a signal travels
through a transmission line to the speed
of light in a vacuum?

- Characteristic impedance
- Surge impedance
- Standing wave ratio
- Velocity factor

**A-007-02-07 (2)**

What is a typical velocity factor for
coaxial cable with polyethylene
dielectric?

- 0.33
- 0.66
- 0.1
- 2.7

**A-007-02-08 (4)**

What determines the velocity factor in a
transmission line?

- The line length
- The centre conductor resistivity
- The terminal impedance
- Dielectrics in the line

**A-007-02-09 (4)**

Why is the physical length of a coaxial
cable shorter than its electrical length?

- The surge impedance is higher in the parallel feed line
- Skin effect is less pronounced in the coaxial cable
- The characteristic impedance is higher in a parallel feed line
- RF energy moves slower along the coaxial cable than in air

**A-007-02-10 (1)**

The reciprocal of the square root of the
dielectric constant of the material used to
separate the conductors in a transmission
line gives the ________ of the line:

- velocity factor
- VSWR
- impedance
- hermetic losses

**A-007-02-11 (1)**

The velocity factor of a transmission line
is the:

- ratio of the velocity of propagation in the transmission line to the velocity of propagation in free space
- impedance of the line, e.g. 50 ohm, 75 ohm, etc.
- speed at which the signal travels in free space
- speed to which the standing waves are reflected back to the transmitter

**A-007-03-01 (4)**

What term describes a method used to
match a high-impedance transmission
line to a lower impedance antenna by
connecting the line to the driven element
in two places, spaced a fraction of a
wavelength on each side of the driven
element centre?

- The gamma match
- The omega match
- The stub match
- The T match

**A-007-03-02 (2)**

What term describes an unbalanced feed
system in which the driven element of an
antenna is fed both at the centre and a
fraction of a wavelength to one side of
centre?

- The omega match
- The gamma match
- The stub match
- The T match

**A-007-03-03 (1)**

What term describes a method of
antenna impedance matching that uses a
short section of transmission line
connected to the antenna feed line near
the antenna and perpendicular to the feed
line?

- The stub match
- The omega match
- The delta match
- The gamma match

**A-007-03-04 (4)**

What would be the physical length of a
typical coaxial stub that is electrically
one quarter wavelength long at 14.1 MHz? (Assume a velocity factor of 0.66)

- 20 metres (65.6 feet)
- 2.33 metres (7.64 feet)
- 0.25 metre (0.82 foot)
- 3.51 metres (11.5 feet)

**A-007-03-05 (1)**

The driven element of a Yagi antenna is
connected to a coaxial transmission line.
The coax braid is connected to the centre
of the driven element and the centre
conductor is connected to a variable
capacitor in series with an adjustable
mechanical arrangement on one side of
the driven element. The type of
matching is:

- gamma match
- lambda match
- "T" match
- zeta match

**A-007-03-06 (3)**

A quarter-wave stub, for use at 15 MHz,
is made from a coaxial cable having a
velocity factor of 0.8. Its physical length
will be:

- 12 m (39.4 ft)
- 8 m (26.2 ft)
- 4 m (13.1 ft)
- 7.5 m (24.6 ft)

**A-007-03-07 (1)**

The matching of a driven element with a
single adjustable mechanical and
capacitive arrangement is descriptive of:

- a "gamma" match
- a "T" match
- an "omega" match
- a "Y" match

**A-007-03-08 (1)**

A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match.
The coaxial braid connects to:

- the centre of the driven element
- the variable capacitor
- the adjustable gamma rod
- the centre of the reflector

**A-007-03-09 (1)**

A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match.
The centre of the driven element
connects to:

- the coaxial line braid
- the coaxial line centre conductor
- the adjustable gamma rod
- a variable capacitor

**A-007-03-10 (2)**

A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match.
The adjustable gamma rod connects to:

- the coaxial line centre conductor
- the variable capacitor
- an adjustable point on the reflector
- the centre of the driven element

**A-007-03-11 (4)**

A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match.
The variable capacitor connects to the:

- an adjustable point on the director
- center of the driven element
- coaxial line braid
- adjustable gamma rod

**A-007-04-01 (4)**

In a half-wave dipole, the distribution of ________ is highest at each end.

- current
- inductance
- capacitance
- voltage

**A-007-04-02 (4)**

In a half-wave dipole, the distribution of ________ is lowest at each end.

- voltage
- inductance
- capacitance
- current

**A-007-04-03 (2)**

The feed point in a centre-fed half-wave antenna is at the point of:

- minimum current
- maximum current
- minimum voltage and current
- maximum voltage

**A-007-04-04 (4)**

In a half-wave dipole, the lowest
distribution of ________ occurs at the
middle.

- capacity
- inductance
- current
- voltage

**A-007-04-05 (3)**

In a half-wave dipole, the highest
distribution of ________ occurs at the
middle.

- inductance
- voltage
- current
- capacity

**A-007-04-06 (1)**

A half-wave dipole antenna is normally
fed at the point where:

- the current is maximum
- the voltage is maximum
- the resistance is maximum
- the antenna is resonant

**A-007-04-07 (4)**

At the ends of a half-wave dipole:

- voltage and current are both high
- voltage and current are both low
- voltage is low and current is high
- voltage is high and current is low

**A-007-04-08 (3)**

The impedance of a half-wave antenna at
its centre is low, because at this point:

- voltage and current are both high
- voltage and current are both low
- voltage is low and current is high
- voltage is high and current is low

**A-007-04-09 (3)**

In a half-wave dipole, where does
minimum voltage occur?

- At the right end
- It is equal at all points
- The centre
- Both ends

**A-007-04-10 (1)**

In a half-wave dipole, where does the
minimum current occur?

- At both ends
- At the centre
- It is equal at all points
- At the right end

**A-007-04-11 (2)**

In a half-wave dipole, where does the
minimum impedance occur?

- It is the same at all points
- At the centre
- At the right end
- At both ends

**A-007-05-01 (4)**

What is meant by circularly polarized
electromagnetic waves?

- Waves with an electric field bent into circular shape
- Waves that circle the earth
- Waves produced by a circular loop antenna
- Waves with a rotating electric field

**A-007-05-02 (3)**

What is the polarization of an
electromagnetic wave if its magnetic
field is parallel to the surface of the
Earth?

- Elliptical
- Circular
- Vertical
- Horizontal

**A-007-05-03 (4)**

What is the polarization of an
electromagnetic wave if its magnetic
field is perpendicular to the surface of
the Earth?

- Vertical
- Circular
- Elliptical
- Horizontal

**A-007-05-04 (2)**

The polarization of a radio wave is taken
as the direction of the lines of force in
the ________ field:

- force
- electric
- magnetic
- electromagnetic

**A-007-05-05 (1)**

A transmitted wave is vertically
polarized when:

- its electrical component is vertical
- the antenna is pointing north in the northern hemisphere
- the antenna is parallel to the ground
- its magnetic component is vertical

**A-007-05-06 (4)**

The polarisation of an antenna is the:

- orientation of its radiated magnetic field
- length of the radiating element
- radiation angle
- orientation of its radiated electric field

**A-007-05-07 (4)**

A parabolic antenna is very efficient
because:

- a dipole antenna can be used to pick up the received energy
- no impedance matching is required
- a horn-type radiator can be used to trap the received energy
- all the received energy is focused to a point where the pick-up antenna is located

**A-007-05-08 (1)**

A helical-beam antenna with right-hand polarization will best receive signals
with:

- right-hand polarization
- left-hand polarization
- vertical polarization only
- horizontal polarization

**A-007-05-09 (1)**

One antenna which will respond
simultaneously to vertically-and horizontally-polarized signals is the:

- helical-beam antenna
- folded dipole antenna
- ground-plane antenna
- quad antenna

**A-007-05-10 (1)**

What precaution should you take
whenever you make adjustments to the
feed system of a parabolic dish antenna?

- Be sure no one can activate the transmitter
- Disconnect the antenna-positioning mechanism
- Point the dish away from the sun so it doesn't concentrate solar energy on you
- Be sure you and the antenna structure are properly grounded

**A-007-05-11 (1)**

Why should a protective fence be placed
around the base of a ground-mounted parabolic dish transmitting antenna?

- To reduce the possibility of persons being harmed by RF energy during transmissions
- To reduce the possibility that animals will damage the antenna
- To increase the property value through increased security awareness
- To protect the antenna from lightning damage and provide a good ground system for the installation

**A-007-06-01 (2)**

A transmitter has an output of 100 watts.
The cable and connectors have a
composite loss of 3 dB, and the antenna
has a gain of 6 dB. What is the Effective
Radiated Power?

- 350 watts
- 200 watts
- 400 watts
- 300 watts

**A-007-06-02 (4)**

As standing wave ratio rises, so does the
loss in the transmission line. This is
caused by:

- high antenna currents
- high antenna voltage
- leakage to ground through the dielectric
- dielectric and conductor heat losses

**A-007-06-03 (4)**

What is the Effective Radiated Power of
an amateur transmitter, if the transmitter
output power is 200 watts, the
transmission line loss is 5 watts, and the
antenna power gain is 3 dB?

- 197 watts
- 228 watts
- 178 watts
- 390 watts

**A-007-06-04 (1)**

Effective Radiated Power means the:

- transmitter output power, minus line losses, plus antenna gain
- power supplied to the antenna before the modulation of the carrier
- power supplied to the feedline plus antenna gain
- ratio of signal output power to signal input power

**A-007-06-05 (3)**

A transmitter has an output power of 200 watts. The coaxial and connector losses
are 3 dB in total, and the antenna gain is
9 dB. What is the approximate Effective
Radiated Power of this system?

- 3200 watts
- 1600 watts
- 800 watts
- 400 watts

**A-007-06-06 (3)**

A transmitter has a power output of 100 watts. There is a loss of 1.30 dB in the
transmission line, a loss of 0.2 dB through the transmatch, and a gain of
4.50 dB in the antenna. The Effective
Radiated Power (ERP) is:

- 800 watts
- 400 watts
- 200 watts
- 100 watts

**A-007-06-07 (3)**

If the overall gain of an amateur station
is increased by 3 dB the ERP (Effective
Radiated Power) will:

- decrease by 3 watts
- remain the same
- double
- be cut in half

**A-007-06-08 (4)**

A transmitter has a power output of 125 watts. There is a loss of 0.8 dB in the
transmission line, 0.2 dB in the
transmatch, and a gain of 10 dB in the
antenna. The Effective Radiated Power
(ERP) is:

- 1250
- 1125
- 134
- 1000

**A-007-06-09 (2)**

If a 3 dB gain antenna is replaced with a
9 dB gain antenna, with no other
changes, the Effective Radiated Power
(ERP) will increase by:

- 6
- 4
- 1.5
- 2

**A-007-06-10 (4)**

A transmitter has an output of 2000 watts PEP. The transmission line,
connectors and transmatch have a
composite loss of 1 dB, and the gain
from the stacked Yagi antenna is 10 dB.
What is the Effective Radiated Power
(ERP) in watts PEP?

- 18 000
- 20 000
- 2009
- 16 000

**A-007-06-11 (3)**

A transmitter has an output of 1000 watts PEP. The coaxial cable, connectors
and transmatch have a composite loss of
1 dB, and the antenna gain is 10 dB.
What is the Effective Radiated Power
(ERP) in watts PEP?

- 1009
- 10 000
- 8000
- 9000

**A-007-07-01 (1)**

For a 3-element Yagi antenna with
horizontally mounted elements, how
does the main lobe takeoff angle vary
with height above flat ground?

- It decreases with increasing height
- It increases with increasing height
- It does not vary with height
- It depends on E-region height, not antenna height

**A-007-07-02 (3)**

Most simple horizontally polarized
antennas do not exhibit any directivity
unless they are:

- an eighth of a wavelength above the ground
- a quarter wavelength above the ground
- a half wavelength or more above the ground
- three-eighths of a wavelength above the ground

**A-007-07-03 (2)**

The plane from which ground reflections
can be considered to take place, or the
effective ground plane for an antenna is:

- as much as 6 cm below ground depending upon soil conditions
- several centimeters to as much as 2 meters below ground, depending upon soil conditions
- as much as a meter above ground
- at ground level exactly

**A-007-07-04 (2)**

Why is a ground-mounted vertical quarter-wave antenna in reasonably open
surroundings better for long distance
contacts than a half-wave dipole at a
quarter wavelength above ground?

- The radiation resistance is lower
- The vertical radiation angle is lower
- It has an omnidirectional characteristic
- It uses vertical polarization

**A-007-07-05 (4)**

When a half-wave dipole antenna is
installed one-half wavelength above
ground, the:

- radiation pattern changes to produce side lobes at 15 and 50 degrees
- side lobe radiation is cancelled
- radiation pattern is unaffected
- vertical or upward radiation is cancelled

**A-007-07-06 (2)**

How does antenna height affect the
horizontal (azimuthal) radiation pattern
of a horizontal dipole HF antenna?

- Antenna height has no effect on the pattern
- If the antenna is less than one-half wavelength high, reflected radio waves from the ground significantly distort the pattern
- If the antenna is less than one-half wavelength high, radiation off the ends of the wire is eliminated
- If the antenna is too high, the pattern becomes unpredictable

**A-007-07-07 (2)**

For long distance propagation, the
vertical radiation angle of the energy
from the antenna should be:

- more than 45 degrees but less than 90 degrees
- less than 30 degrees
- 90 degrees
- more than 30 degrees but less than 45 degrees

**A-007-07-08 (2)**

Greater distance can be covered with multiple-hop transmissions by
decreasing the:

- power applied to the antenna
- vertical radiation angle of the antenna
- main height of the antenna
- length of the antenna

**A-007-07-09 (1)**

The impedance at the centre of a dipole
antenna more than 3 wavelengths above
ground would be nearest to:

- 75 ohms
- 25 ohms
- 300 ohms
- 600 ohms

**A-007-07-10 (2)**

What is the main reason why so many VHF base and mobile antennas are 5/8
of a wavelength?

- The angle of radiation is high giving excellent local coverage
- Most of the energy is radiated at a low angle
- It's easy to match the antenna to the transmitter
- It's a convenient length on VHF

**A-007-07-11 (1)**

The most important consideration when
deciding upon an antenna for contacting
stations at great distances (DX) is:

- vertical angle of radiation
- sunspot activity
- impedance
- bandwidth

**A-007-08-01 (4)**

What is meant by the radiation resistance
of an antenna?

- The resistance in the atmosphere that an antenna must overcome to be able to radiate a signal
- The specific impedance of an antenna
- The combined losses of the antenna elements and feed line
- The equivalent resistance that would dissipate the same amount of power as that radiated from an antenna

**A-007-08-02 (3)**

Why would one need to know the
radiation resistance of an antenna?

- To measure the near-field radiation density from a transmitting antenna
- To calculate the front-to-side ratio of the antenna
- To match impedances for maximum power transfer
- To calculate the front-to-back ratio of the antenna

**A-007-08-03 (1)**

What factors determine the radiation
resistance of an antenna?

- Antenna location with respect to nearby objects and the conductors length/diameter ratio
- Transmission line length and antenna height
- Sunspot activity and time of day
- It is a physical constant and is the same for all antennas

**A-007-08-04 (4)**

What is the term for the ratio of the
radiation resistance of an antenna to the
total resistance of the system?

- Beamwidth
- Effective Radiated Power
- Radiation conversion loss
- Antenna efficiency

**A-007-08-05 (2)**

What is included in the total resistance
of an antenna system?

- Radiation resistance plus transmission resistance
- Radiation resistance plus ohmic resistance
- Transmission line resistance plus radiation resistance
- Radiation resistance plus space impedance

**A-007-08-06 (2)**

How can the approximate beamwidth of
a beam antenna be determined?

- Draw two imaginary lines through the ends of the elements and measure the angle between the lines
- Note the two points where the signal strength is down 3 dB from the maximum signal point and compute the angular difference
- Measure the ratio of the signal strengths of the radiated power lobes from the front and side of the antenna
- Measure the ratio of the signal strengths of the radiated power lobes from the front and rear of the antenna

**A-007-08-07 (4)**

How is antenna percent efficiency
calculated?

- (radiation resistance / transmission resistance) X 100
- (total resistance / radiation resistance) X 100
- (effective radiated power / transmitter output) X 100
- (radiation resistance / total resistance) X 100

**A-007-08-08 (1)**

What is the term used for an equivalent
resistance which would dissipate the
same amount of energy as that radiated
from an antenna?

- Radiation resistance
- "j" factor
- Antenna resistance
- "K" factor

**A-007-08-09 (1)**

Antenna beamwidth is the angular
distance between :

- the points on the major lobe at the halfpower points
- the maximum lobe spread points on the major lobe
- the 6 dB power points on the major lobe
- the 3 dB power points on the first minor lobe

**A-007-08-10 (3)**

If the ohmic resistance of a half-wave dipole is 2 ohms, and the radiation
resistance is 72 ohms, what is the
antenna efficiency?

- 74%
- 72%
- 97.3%
- 100%

**A-007-08-11 (2)**

If the ohmic resistance of a miniloop
antenna is 2 milliohms and the radiation
resistance is 50 milliohms, what is the
antenna efficiency?

- 52%
- 96.15%
- 25%
- 50%

**A-007-09-01 (2)**

Waveguide is typically used:

- at frequencies above 2 MHz
- at frequencies above 1500 MHz
- at frequencies below 150 MHz
- at frequencies below 1500 MHz

**A-007-09-02 (3)**

Which of the following is **Not
Correct**? Waveguide is an efficient
transmission medium because it features:

- low radiation loss
- low dielectric loss
- low hysteresis loss
- low copper loss

**A-007-09-03 (2)**

Which of the following is an advantage
of waveguide as a transmission line?

- Frequency sensitive based on dimensions
- Low loss
- Expensive
- Heavy and difficult to install

**A-007-09-04 (3)**

For rectangular waveguide to transfer
energy, the cross-section should be at
least:

- three-eighths wavelength
- one-eighth wavelength
- one-half wavelength
- one-quarter wavelength

**A-007-09-05 (2)**

Which of the following statements about
waveguide **Is Not** correct?

- In the transverse electric mode, a component of the magnetic field is in the direction of propagation
- Waveguide has high loss at high frequencies, but low loss below cutoff frequency
- In the transverse magnetic mode, a component of the electric field is in the direction of propagation
- Waveguide has low loss at high frequencies, but high loss below cutoff frequency

**A-007-09-06 (3)**

Which of the following is a major
advantage of waveguide over coaxial
cable for use at microwave frequencies?

- Frequency response from 1.8 MHz to 24 GHz
- Easy to install
- Very low losses
- Inexpensive to install

**A-007-09-07 (2)**

What is printed circuit transmission line
called?

- Dielectric substrate
- Microstripline
- Dielectric imprinting
- Ground plane

**A-007-09-08 (1)**

Compared with coaxial cable,
microstripline:

- has poorer shielding
- has superior shielding
- must have much lower characteristic impedance
- must have much higher characteristic impedance

**A-007-09-09 (4)**

A section of waveguide:

- operates like a low-pass filter
- operates like a band-stop filter
- is lightweight and easy to install
- operates like a high-pass filter

**A-007-09-10 (4)**

Microstripline is:

- a small semiconductor family
- a high power microwave antenna
- a family of fluids for removing coatings from small parts
- printed circuit transmission line

**A-007-09-11 (2)**

What precautions should you take before
beginning repairs on a microwave feed
horn or waveguide?

- Be sure the weather is dry and sunny
- Be sure the transmitter is turned off and the power source is disconnected
- Be sure propagation conditions are unfavorable for tropospheric ducting
- Be sure to wear tight-fitting clothes and gloves to protect your body and hands from sharp edge

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