Archived—Consultation on the Use of the Band 25.25-28.35 GHz

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DGTP-002-10
May 2010

Spectrum Management and Telecommunications

Contents


1. Intent

As per Canada Gazette notice DGTP-002-10, Industry Canada is releasing this consultation to seek comments on a proposed policy for the use of the band 25.25-28.35 GHz. Respondents who would like the Department to consider alternative proposals are requested to provide a rationale, supporting information, and address any related issues. The Department is also taking this opportunity to announce an interim licensing process pending the establishment of a formal licensing process.

2. Background

In February 1996, Industry Canada issued a call for applications, which announced that the Department would use a comparative process to select licensees for two 500 MHz frequency blocks in the 28 GHz band for Local Multipoint Communication Systems (LMCS): Block A from 27.85 to 28.35 GHz and Block B from 27.35 to 27.85 GHz. The spectrum designated for LMCS applications was intended for high capacity multipoint communications systems that provide coverage over local areas and offer wide access to residential and business customers.

Canadian Band Plan (25.25-28.35 GHz)

In October 1996, the Department announced the winners of the comparative process and issued licences to three companies. It also announced that the remaining four 500 MHz blocks (C, D, E, and F) would be reserved. Limited deployment took place, but eventually, all licences were returned to the Department by January 2002.

Figure 1: 1996 Local Multipoint Communication systems Band Plan

Figure 1 – 1996 LMCS Band Plan

3. Policy

The Department is hereby consulting on the band 25.25-28.35 GHz while reserving the 26.5-27.5 GHz range because of the use of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). This would open up 1250 MHz of spectrum in the lower half of the band and 850 MHz in the upper half of the band as follows:

Figure 2: Proposed General Band Plan

Figure 2 – Proposed General Band Plan

The rationale is provided below, using the Canada/U.S. (Figure 3) and European (Figure 4) band plans from 24.25 to 29.5 GHz.

Canada/U.S. Band Plan

Figure 3: Combined Current Canada-U.S. Band Plan

Figure 3 – Combined Current Canada/U.S. Band Plan

to be reserved – formerly part of Canadian LMCS Block B

In both Canada and the United States, the situation is similar in the case of the band 24.25-25.25 GHz, with auctioned spectrum in the bands 24.25-24.45 GHz and 25.05-25.25 GHz, and inter-satellite and radionavigation systems in the band 24.45-25.05 GHz. The range 25.35-27.5 GHz is currently designated for LMCS in Canada, whereas in the United States, it is designated for government use. The band 27.5-28.35 GHz has similar designations in both countries, with LMCS in Canada and Local Multipoint Distributions Systems (LMDS) in the United States. Finally, the band 27.5-29.5 GHz aligns with the United States through Spectrum Utilization Policy SP 3-30 GHz. Refer to Annex A for related footnotes contained in the Canadian Table of Frequency Allocations.

European Band Plan

Figure 4: Current European Band Plan

Figure 4 – Current European Band Plan

In Europe, the two paired bands 24.549 to 25.445 GHz and 25.557 to 26.453 GHz have been designated to the fixed service. This designation does not currently align with Canadian or U.S. band plans in the range 25.25 to 26.5 GHz.

Europe has designated the 26.5 to 27.5 GHz range for government use.

The European plan differs from the current Canada/U.S plan in the 27.5-29.5 GHz range, where designations are made to the fixed service in the bands 27.8285-28.4445 GHz and 28.9485-29.4525 GHz, mostly paired. In addition, the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) designations are made for the bands 27.5-27.8285 GHz and 28.4445-28.9485 GHz.

Decision

Taking into consideration the above band plans, it is the intent of the Department to make available portions of the spectrum 25.35-28.35 GHz, which includes removing the reservation on the band 25.35-27.35 GHz as originally announced in the paper entitled Local Multipoint Communication Systems (LMCS) in the 28 GHz Range: Policy, Authorization Procedures and Evaluation Criteria. The Department intends to also make available the 25.25-25.35 GHz band that was not previously identified for use. The band 26.5-27.5 GHz will be held in reserve given that it is used for TDRS and other systems in the United States and Europe.

Decision: The Department is opening the lower and upper portions of the band 25.25-28.35 GHz (25.25-26.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz respectively) for fixed systems. Given the use of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) systems and other systems in other administrations, use of the band 26.5-27.5 GHz will be reserved subject to a future policy review.

4. First-Come, First-Served (FCFS)

FCFS licensing is typically used for point-to-point applications for backhaul or similar applications and is based on the amount of spectrum needed for immediate implementation.

In March 2009, the Department released DGRB-004-09, Decisions on the Renewal of 24 and 38 GHz Spectrum Licences and Consultation of Spectrum Licence Fees for 24,28 and 38 GHz Bands. At that time, the Department decided that it would implement an FCFS process for the unassigned and returned 24, 28 and 38 GHz spectrum.

The Department decided that an FCFS licensing process would be implemented for the unassigned and returned 28 GHz spectrum. In this consultation, the Department proposes to review the use of the band 25.35-28.35 GHz and extend the band to include 25.25-25.35 GHz. The Department is of the view that the FCFS approach in the bands 25.25-26.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz is appropriate at this time given that demand is not anticipated to exceed supply. However, the Department reserves the right to review the use of the process and consider a competitive process at any time.

Figure 5: FCFS Proposal

Figure 5 – FCFS Proposal

The Department seeks comments on implementing an FCFS licensing process in the bands 25.25-26.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz.

5. Spectrum Structure

5.1 Band Plan

In the United States, Local Multipoint Distribution Systems (LMDS) operate in the band 27.5-28.35 GHz, using 25 and 50 MHz blocks.

Figure 6: Current U.S. Blocks

Figure 6 – Current U.S. Blocks

In Europe, fixed licences in the 24.5-26.5 GHz and 27.5-29.5 GHz ranges are assigned in 112 MHz, 56 MHz, 28 MHz, 14 MHz, 7 MHz and 3.5 MHz blocks. The 24.5-26.5 GHz range is made up of paired bands assigned to the fixed service, with a duplex spacing of 1008 MHz. In the 27.5-29.5 GHz range, the 27.8285-27.9405 GHz unpaired segment, as well as the 27.9405-28.4445 GHz and 28.9485-29.4525 GHz paired bands, are assigned to the fixed service. The remainder of the 27.5-29.5 GHz spectrum is assigned to the FSS and the 26.5-27.5 GHz range is assigned for government systems, as shown in the following diagram:

Figure 7: Current European Spectrum Blocks

Figure 7 – Current European Spectrum Blocks

In Canada, the band 25.35-28.35 GHz is currently divided into six frequency blocks of 500 MHz each, based on Standard Radio System Plan SRSP-325.35 (see Figure 1). In order to meet demand for various applications, the Department is soliciting comments on a new band plan for 25.25-26.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz, which would accommodate point-to-point and point-to-multipoint systems.

Considering the different band plans in Europe and the United States, the Department has provided two options for a new Canadian band plan to include elements of both, as shown below.

Option 1

Option 1 harmonizes with the European band plan in the 25.25-26.5 GHz range to the maximum extent possible, providing six paired channels with a duplex spacing of 1008 MHz (same as in the European plan). The remainder of the spectrum (28 x 28 MHz) in the 25.25-26.5 GHz range would be aligned with European channeling, but would be limited to time division duplex (TDD) operation. In the 27.5-28.35 GHz range, Option 1 would provide the possibility of aligning with the European 28 MHz channels or the U.S. 25 and 50 MHz channels, but would be limited to TDD operation.

Figure 8: Proposed Canadian Band Plan - Option 1

Figure 8 – Proposed Canadian Band Plan – Option 1 (1008 MHz Duplex Spacing)

Option 2

Option 2 is based on a duplex spacing of 756 MHz in the lower block (compared to 1008 MHz in the European plan). The 25.25-26.5 GHz band can then accommodate 15 paired 28 MHz channels for frequency division duplex (FDD) operation. The remainder of the spectrum in this band (10 x 28 MHz) would be unpaired. In the 27.5-28.35 GHz range, Option 2 is identical to Option 1, providing the possibility to align with the European 28 MHz channels or the U.S. 25 and 50 MHz channels.

Figure 9: Proposed Canadian Band Plan - Option 2

Figure 9 – Proposed Canadian Band Plan – Option 2 (756 MHz Duplex Spacing)

A possible variation to Option 2 is to further reduce the amount of unpaired spectrum in the 25.25-26.5 GHz range, resulting in more FDD channels and smaller duplex spacing.

Given the very different European and U.S. band plans, the Department seeks comments on the two band plan options provided above.

Comments are also sought on point-to-point versus point-to-multipoint systems, i.e. is one expected to be more heavily deployed than the other? Are both systems compatible in the same frequency range?

Is there greater interest in deploying FDD or TDD systems in this band?

Other than the two options provided, is there another band plan that Industry Canada should be considering? If yes, provide supporting information/rationale and address any related issue outlined herein.

Specifically, for the band 25.25-26.5 GHz:

Are channel bandwidths of 28 MHz appropriate? Is it beneficial to align with the European band plan in terms of duplex spacing given that FDD operation will be limited to six paired channels? Is there interest in making equipment to support Option 2, with the same channeling plan as in Europe, but with a different duplex spacing for FDD operation?

Specifically, for the band 27.5-28.35 GHz:

Is it preferable to have channel bandwidths of 25 or 50 MHz, or channel bandwidths of 28 MHz?

5.2 Spectrum Access

As discussed, the Department is of the view that the FCFS approach in the bands 25.25-26.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz is the most appropriate, at this time, as long as the demand does not exceed supply. This approach would accommodate a greater number of licensees in a given geographical area.

In order to keep the band available on an FCFS basis, the Department proposes to apply the following principles:

  1. Assignments of blocks will be on an “as needed” basis. Licensees will be required to demonstrate their need for spectrum for each request.
  2. A second block will only be assigned to a licensee in the same service area when the original block assignment cannot be reused.
  3. Assignments will be brought into service within a period not greater than six months from receipt of an approval-in-principle/licence.
  4. A licensee will be assigned the same frequency blocks, to the extent possible, in all authorized service areas.
  5. Requests for wide area authorization, for example, large regions of a province, will not be considered.
  6. Point-to-point systems may have shared access where it is determined that their usage requirements are low.
  7. Should demand exceed supply in a particular area, the Department reserves the right to review the use and consider a competitive process at any time.

The Department seeks comments on these principles.

6. Licensing

6.1 Licensing Options

Industry Canada is considering two licensing options.

Spectrum Licensing

Industry Canada could issue a spectrum licence to authorize the use of frequency assignments in a spectrum block(s) within the defined geographic service area and may require that the licensee deploy the licensed system within a set time period.

To minimize the administrative burden for both the licensee and Industry Canada, the Department would expect applicants to apply for service areas that would meet their projected requirements for a reasonable length of time, enabling them to react quickly to market conditions through rapid deployment of necessary radio links.

Radiocommunication Station Licensing

Industry Canada could issue a radiocommunication station licence for each radio station installation (i.e. site).

6.2 Service Areas

Due to the nature of licensing on an FCFS basis, if spectrum licensing is adopted, the Department is proposing that requests for wide area authorization (e.g. large regions of a province) not be entertained.

The Department proposes that, for spectrum licensees, the service area be user-defined. With this approach, licensees would be granted spectrum licence authority to use specific frequencies within user-defined service areas. Service area boundaries would be clearly defined by using standard geographical coordinates or other technically verifiable means (e.g. 25 km radius of specific latitude/longitude coordinates).

To facilitate confirmation of service area boundaries and coverage populations, licensees would also provide Industry Canada with electronic copies of proposed service areas in an acceptable Graphical Interface System (GIS) format. Such formats include MapInfo, ESRI Shapefile, AutoCAD Map or GML. Raster image formats, such as BMP, JPEG or TIFF, are also acceptable provided that raster images contain landmarks (e.g. rivers, roads, etc.) to allow sufficient geo-referencing of service area images.

The Department seeks comments on the licensing options and the use of a user-defined service area.

6.3 Licence Fees

DGRB-004-09 indicated that, in the comments received, there was general agreement on having the same fee apply to FCFS licences in the unassigned spectrum in the 24 and 38 GHz bands and in the 28 GHz LMCS spectrum. The Department has previously requested comments on the proposed fee, which is based on a per MHz per population basis, to ensure flexibility in issuing licences in the future, particularly in the 28 GHz band where a decision has yet to be made on the band plan. The Department intends to continue with the process to implement a fee for the indicated bands under the User Fees Act.

Should Industry Canada adopt the concept of issuing a radiocommunication station licence for each site, fees would be charged per radio link and based on telephone channel equivalencies in accordance with Section 65 of the Radiocommunication Regulations and the fee proposed in DGRB-004-09 would not be applied to the 28 GHz band.

Regardless of which licensing concept is adopted, licensees would be required to pay the annual licence fee before March 31 of each year for the subsequent year (April 1 to March 31).

7. Equipment

Radio equipment must comply with the latest Radio Standards Specification 191 (RSS-191), Local Multipoint Communication Systems in the Band 25.35-28.35 GHz; Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Broadband Communication Systems in the Bands 24.25-24.45 GHz and 25.05-25.25 GHz; and Point-to-Multipoint Broadband Communications in the Band 38.6-40.0 GHz.

8. Frequency Coordination

Use of the band 27.35-28.35 GHz near the Canada-United States border is subject in part to the provisions of the Interim Arrangement Concerning the Sharing between Canada and the United States of America on Local Multipoint Communication Systems, the Local Multipoint Distribution Service and Other Systems in the Fixed Service in Parts of the Frequency Bands 27.35-28.35 GHz, 29.1-29.25 GHz, and 31.0-31.3 GHz.

The licensee must respect the technical and operational requirements for LMCS, including inter-system coordination in relation to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) requirements for the band 25.25-27.5 GHz, as outlined in SRSP-325.35.

9. Interim Licensing Process

Given that there may be immediate need for spectrum, the Department is now accepting applications for radiocommunication station licences, to be issued on a non-standard basis, in parts of the bands 25.25-26.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz.

Authority will be granted on an FCFS, non-standard basis for deployment in a specific site, in accordance with the minimum spectrum necessary to support demonstrated requirements. Requests for additional spectrum may be considered, based on the implementation, development and reasonable loading of the initial assigned frequencies. The technical parameters that may be applicable to a station licensed on an interim basis in this band can be found in Annex B.

A radiocommunication station licence will be issued for each site. Fees will be charged per radio link and based on telephone channel equivalencies in accordance with Section 65 of the Radiocommunication Regulations. Licensees must pay the annual licence fee before March 31 of each year for the subsequent year (April 1 to March 31).

For more information on the conditions of licence and technical parameters for these interim licences, contact the nearest Industry Canada spectrum management office.1

It is anticipated that this interim licensing process will continue pending completion of this consultation process, the publication of a revised Spectrum Policy (SP), Standard Radio System Plan (SRSP), and Radio Standards Specifications (RSS) and the establishment of a formal licensing process. The details of the formal licensing process will be established through a future consultation.

It is proposed that once a formal licensing process has been established, interim licensees will be provided an opportunity to apply for a licence under the new process providing that they can meet all of the technical and licensing requirements established. Where interim licensees are not granted a licence under the new process, they will likely be subject to a transition policy as follows:

Where a licence has been issued for the same spectrum and geographic area as an interim licence, and the new licensee has informed the Department that the interim licensee’s presence precludes access to the authorized spectrum, the interim licensee upon receiving this written notice from Industry Canada will be given one year from the date of the notice to vacate the band.

Licensees authorized through this interim process may be required to adjust the parameters of their stations in accordance with the forthcoming standards, procedures and policies.

Applications may be submitted to the nearest Industry Canada spectrum management office effective immediately.

May 14, 2010

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PAMELA MILLER
Director General
Telecommunications Policy Branch

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MARC DUPUIS
Director General
Engineering, Planning and Standards Branch

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FIONA GILFILLAN
Director General
Spectrum Management Operations Branch


Annex A – Spectrum Allocation – Bands 25.25-28.35 GHz

This subsection describes the allocation and usage of the bands 25.25-28.35 GHz. These bands are allocated to the following services in accordance with the Canadian Table of Allocations:2

25.25 - 25.5

FIXED
INTER-SATELLITE 5.536
MOBILE
Earth Exploration-Satellite (space-to-Earth)
Standard Frequency and Time Signal-Satellite (Earth-to-space)

C47B

25.5 - 27

EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth)
FIXED
INTER-SATELLITE 5.536
MOBILE
SPACE RESEARCH (space-to-Earth)
Standard Frequency and Time Signal-Satellite (Earth-to-space)

5.536A C47B

27 - 27.5

FIXED
FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space)
INTER-SATELLITE 5.536
MOBILE

C47A C47B

27.5 - 28.5

FIXED
FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 5.484A 5.516B 5.539
MOBILE

5.538 5.540 C16F C47A


5.484A

The use of the bands 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 2, 12.2-12.75 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 3, 12.5-12.75 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 1, 13.75-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space), 17.8-18.6 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 27.5-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), 29.5-30 GHz (Earth-to-space) by a non-geostationary-satellite system in the fixed-satellite service is subject to application of the provisions of No. 9.12 for coordination with other non-geostationary-satellite systems in the fixed-satellite service. Non-geostationary-satellite systems in the fixed-satellite service shall not claim protection from geostationary-satellite networks in the fixed-satellite service operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations, irrespective of the dates of receipt by the Bureau of the complete coordination or notification information, as appropriate, for the non-geostationary-satellite systems in the fixed-satellite service and of the complete coordination or notification information, as appropriate, for the geostationary-satellite networks, and No. 5.43A does not apply. Non-geostationary-satellite systems in the fixed-satellite service in the above bands shall be operated in such a way that any unacceptable interference that may occur during their operation shall be rapidly eliminated. (WRC-2000)


5.516B

The following bands are identified for use by high-density applications in the fixed-satellite service (HDFSS):

17.3-17.7 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 1

18.3-19.3 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 2

19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) in all Regions

39.5-40 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 1

40-40.5 GHz (space-to-Earth) in all Regions

40.5-42 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 2

47.5-47.9 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 1

48.2-48.54 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 1

49.44-50.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) in Region 1 and

27.5-27.82 GHz (Earth-to-space) in Region 1

28.35-28.45 GHz (Earth-to-space) in Region 2

28.45-28.94 GHz (Earth-to-space) in all Regions

28.94-29.1 GHz (Earth-to-space) in Region 2 and 3

29.25-29.46 GHz (Earth-to-space) in Region 2

29.46-30 GHz (Earth-to-space) in all Regions

48.2-50.2 GHz (Earth-to-space) in Region 2

This identification does not preclude the use of these bands by other fixed-satellite service applications or by other services to which these bands are allocated on a co-primary basis and does not establish priority in these Regulations among users of the bands. Administrations should take this into account when considering regulatory provisions in relation to these bands. See Resolution 143 (WRC-03). (WRC-03)


5.536

Use of the 25.25-27.5 GHz band by the inter-satellite service is limited to space research and Earth exploration-satellite applications, and also transmissions of data originating from industrial and medical activities in space.


5.536A

Administrations operating earth stations in the Earth exploration-satellite service or the space research service shall not claim protection from stations in the fixed and mobile services operated by other administrations. In addition, earth stations in the Earth exploration-satellite service or in the space research service should be operated taking into account Recommendations ITU-R SA.1278 and ITU-R SA.1625, respectively. (WRC-03)


5.538

Additional allocation: the bands 27.500-27.501 GHz and 29.999-30.000 GHz are also allocated to the fixed-satellite service (space-to-Earth) on a primary basis for the beacon transmissions intended for up-link power control. Such space-to-Earth transmissions shall not exceed an equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) of +10 dBW in the direction of adjacent satellites on the geostationary-satellite orbit. (WRC-07)


5.539

The band 27.5-30 GHz may be used by the fixed-satellite service (Earth-to-space) for the provision of feeder links for the broadcasting-satellite service.


5.540

Additional allocation: the band 27.501-29.999 GHz is also allocated to the fixed-satellite service (space-to-Earth) on a secondary basis for beacon transmissions intended for up-link power control.


C16F

(CAN-04) In the bands 28.35-29.1 GHz and 29.25-29.5 GHz, use of the fixed-satellite service has priority over use of the fixed service. Use of the fixed service in this band shall be limited to applications that pose minimal constraints on the deployment of fixed-satellite services. Domestic implementation of fixed-satellite services in the band 28.6-29.1 GHz will be governed by spectrum utilization policies to be developed. These policies will take regional developments into consideration in the designation and authorization of spectrum for particular systems and technologies.



C47A

(CAN-00) The band 27.35-28.35 GHz is being licensed for Local Multipoint Communication Systems (LMCS) in the fixed service, which will be given priority over fixed-satellite service systems sharing this spectrum on a co-primary basis. Fixed-satellite service implementation in this band will be limited to applications which will pose minimal constraints upon the deployment of fixed service systems, such as a small number of large antennas for feeder links.

C47B

(CAN-00) The band 25.35-27.5 GHz has been designated for Local Multipoint Communications Systems (LMCS) in the fixed service. Recommendations are under development within the ITU-R on sharing with the inter-satellite service.


Annex B – Technical Parameters for Interim Licences

With respect to interim licensing (see section 9), licensees must adhere to the interim technical parameters indicated below:

Interim Technical Requirements

The interim technical requirements are as follows:

  1. The transmitter power into the antenna must not exceed +10 dBW per carrier.
  2. The maximum effective isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) of any transmit station shall not exceed +55 dBW per carrier.
  3. Transmitting and receiving stations should avoid directing their antennas in the direction of GSO locations (see Note 1 below).
  4. Transmitting stations within 80 km of the United States border should avoid directing their antennas in the direction of the border.
  5. For point-to-multipoint systems:
    • the e.i.r.p density shall not exceed +30 dBW/MHz for subscriber stations, and +14 dBW/MHz for hubs;
    • for hubs having a main beam with an elevation angle θ greater than 5° above the horizontal plane, the e.i.r.p. density limit must be lowered to +14 – 10 log10(θ/5) dBW/MHz;
    • if the main beam of the transmitter is within a 1.5° angle (taking into account the effect of atmospheric refraction) of the direction of any geostationary-satellite orbit (GSO) location (see Note 1), the e.i.r.p density limits must be lowered to +24 dBW/MHz for subscriber stations and +8 dBW/MHz for hubs (the e.i.r.p density for hubs must be lowered to +14 – 10 log10(θ/5) dBW/MHz for elevation angle θ greater than 20°).
  6. For point-to-point systems:
    • the e.i.r.p. density shall not exceed +30 dBW/MHz;
    • if the main beam of the transmitter is within a 1.5° angle (taking into account the effect of atmospheric refraction) of the direction of any GSO location (see Note 1), the e.i.r.p. density limit must be lowered to +24 dBW/MHz.
  7. In addition, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) requirements described in Appendix A of the Industry Canada SRSP-325.35 document are applicable.
  8. The domestic inter-system coordination requirements in Section 6.2 of SRSP-325.35 apply.

Note 1: The ITU-R identifies the following GSO data relay satellite orbital positions: 16.4° E, 21.5° E, 47° E, 59° E, 85° E, 89° E, 90.75° E, 95° E, 113° E, 121° E, 133° E, 160° E, 177.5° E, 12° W, 16° W, 32° W, 41° W, 44° W, 46° W, 49° W, 62° W, 139° W, 160° W, 170° W, 171° W, 174° W.


Footnotes

  1. back to footnote reference 1 RIC-66 - Addresses and Telephone Numbers of Regional and District Offices http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf01742.html
  2. back to footnote reference 2 Canadian Table of Frequency Allocations 9 kHz to 275 GHz (2009 Edition): http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/vwapj/cane2009edition-eng.pdf/$FILE/cane2009edition-eng.pdf.