RSS-210 – Licence-exempt Radio Apparatus (All Frequency Bands): Category I Equipment
Annex 7 – Field Disturbance Sensors Operating in the Bands 902–928 MHz, 2435–2465 MHz, 5785–5815 MHz, 10.5–10.55 GHz and 24.075–24.175 GHz
This annex sets out requirements permitting licence-exempt operation of field disturbance sensors in the frequency bands shown in the table below.
The emission limits stated below are based on measurement instrumentation employing an average detector.
Note: Perimeter protection systems, which employ a leaky transmission line as the radiating source, are excluded from the requirements of this annex.
- The field strength measured at 3 metres shall not exceed the limits shown in the following table:
Field Disturbance Sensors Operating in the Bands 902–928 MHz, 2435–2465 MHz, 5785–5815 MHz, 10.5–10.55 GHz and 24.075–24.175 GHz – The field strength measured at 3 metres shall not exceed the limits shown in the following table Fundamental
902–928 500 1.6 2435–2465 500 1.6 5785–5815 500 1.6 10500–10550 2500 25 24075–24175 2500 25
- Additionally, harmonic emissions falling into a restricted band of RSS-Gen and below 17.7 GHz shall meet the general field strength limits of RSS-Gen.
Those falling into restricted bands above 17.7 GHz shall not exceed the following field strength limits measured at a distance of 3 metres:
- 25 mV/m for the second and third harmonics of field disturbance sensors operating in the 24075–24175 MHz band and for devices designed for use only within buildings or for intermittent use, such as to open building doors;
- 7.5 mV/m for all other devices.
- Field disturbance sensors designed to be used in motor vehicles or aircraft must include features to prevent continuous operation unless their emissions in the restricted bands of RSS-Gen, other than the second and third harmonics from devices operating in the band 24075–24175 MHz, comply with the general field strength limits specified in RSS-Gen. Continuous operation of field disturbance sensors designed to be used in farm equipment (i.e. vehicles such as fork lifts that are intended primarily for use indoors or for very specialized operations), or railroad locomotives, railroad cars, and other equipment which travels on fixed tracks, is permitted. A field disturbance sensor is considered not to be operating in a continuous mode if its operation is limited to specific activities of limited duration (e.g. putting a vehicle into reverse gear, activating a turn signal, etc.).
- Emissions radiated outside of the specified frequency bands, except for harmonics, shall be attenuated by at least 50 dB below the level of the fundamental or to the general field strength limits specified in RSS-Gen, whichever is less stringent.
Annex 8 – Frequency Hopping and Digital Modulation Systems Operating in the Bands 902–928 MHz, 2400–2483.5 MHz and 5725–5850 MHz
This annex applies to systems that employ frequency hopping (FH) and digital modulation technology in the bands 902–928 MHz, 2400–2483.5 MHz and 5725–5850 MHz. Systems in these bands may employ frequency hopping, digital modulation and/or a combination (hybrid) of both techniques.
A frequency hopping system that synchronizes with another or several other systems (to avoid frequency collision among them) via off-air sensing or via connecting cables is not hopping randomly and therefore is not in compliance with RSS-210.
A8.1 Frequency Hopping Systems
Frequency hopping systems are spread spectrum systems in which the carrier is modulated with coded information in a conventional manner, causing a conventional spreading of the radio frequency (RF) energy about the carrier frequency. The frequency of the carrier is not fixed, but changes at fixed intervals under the direction of a coded sequence.
Frequency hopping systems are not required to employ all available hopping frequencies during each transmission. However, the system, consisting of both the transmitter and the receiver, must be designed to comply with all of the regulations in this section in case the transmitter is presented with a continuous data (or information) stream.
Incorporation of intelligence into a frequency hopping system that enables it to recognize other users of the band and to avoid occupied frequencies is permitted provided that the frequency hopping system does it individually, and independently chooses or adapts its hopset. The coordination of frequency hopping systems in any other manner for the express purpose of avoiding the simultaneous occupancy of individual hopping frequencies by multiple transmitters is not permitted.
The following applies to frequency hopping systems in each of the three bands:
- The bandwidth of a frequency hopping channel is the -20 dB emission bandwidth, measured with the hopping stopped. The system radio frequency (RF) bandwidth is equal to the channel bandwidth multiplied by the number of channels in the hopset. The hopset shall be such that the near-term distribution of frequencies appears random, with sequential hops randomly distributed in both direction and magnitude of change in the hopset, while the long-term distribution appears evenly distributed.
- Frequency hopping systems shall have hopping channel carrier frequencies separated by a minimum of 25 kHz or the -20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel, whichever is greater. Alternatively, frequency hopping systems operating in the band 2400–2483.5 MHz may have hopping channel carrier frequencies that are separated by 25 kHz or two-thirds of the -20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel, whichever is greater, provided that the systems operate with an output power no greater than 0.125 W. The system receivers shall have input bandwidths that match the hopping channel bandwidths of their corresponding transmitters and shall shift frequencies in synchronization with the transmitted signals.
- For frequency hopping systems in the band 902–928 MHz: if the -20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel is less than 250 kHz, the system shall use at least 50 hopping channels and the average time of occupancy on any channel shall not be greater than 0.4 seconds within a 20-second period. If the -20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel is 250 kHz or greater, the system shall use at least 25 hopping channels and the average time of occupancy on any channel shall not be greater than 0.4 seconds within a 10-second period. The maximum allowed -20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel is 500 kHz.
- Frequency hopping systems operating in the band 2400–2483.5 MHz shall use at least 15 hopping channels. The average time of occupancy on any channel shall not be greater than 0.4 seconds within a period of 0.4 seconds, multiplied by the number of hopping channels employed. Transmissions on particular hopping frequencies may be avoided or suppressed provided that a minimum of 15 hopping channels are used.
- Frequency hopping systems operating in the band 5725–5850 MHz shall use at least 75 hopping channels. The maximum -20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel shall be 1 MHz. The average time of occupancy on any frequency shall not be greater than 0.4 seconds within a 30-second period.
A8.2 Digital Modulation Systems
These include systems that employ digital modulation techniques resulting in spectral characteristics similar to direct sequence systems. The following applies to all three bands:
- The minimum -6 dB bandwidth shall be at least 500 kHz.
- The transmitter power spectral density conducted from the transmitter to the antenna shall not be greater than 8 dBm in any 3 kHz band during any time interval of continuous transmission. This power spectral density shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section A8.4 (4), (i.e. the power spectral density shall be determined using the same method as is used to determine the conducted output power).
A8.3 Hybrid Systems
Hybrid systems employ a combination of both frequency hopping and digital modulation techniques and must comply with the following:
- With the digital modulation operation of the hybrid system turned off, the frequency hopping operation shall have an average time of occupancy on any frequency not exceeding 0.4 seconds within a duration in seconds equal to the number of hopping frequencies multiplied by 0.4.
- With the frequency hopping turned off, the digital modulation operation shall comply with the power spectral density requirements for digital modulation systems set out in of Section A8.2 (b) above.
A8.4 Transmitter Output Power and e.i.r.p. Requirements
- For frequency hopping systems operating in the band 902–928 MHz, the maximum peak conducted output power shall not exceed 1.0 W, and the e.i.r.p. shall not exceed 4 W if the hopset uses 50 or more hopping channels; the maximum peak conducted output power shall not exceed 0.25 W, and the e.i.r.p. shall not exceed 1 W if the hopset uses less than 50 hopping channels.
- For frequency hopping systems operating in the band 2400–2483.5 MHz and employing at least 75 hopping channels, the maximum peak conducted output power shall not exceed 1 W; for all other frequency hopping systems in the band, the maximum peak conducted output power shall not exceed 0.125 W. Except as provided in Section A8.4 (5), the e.i.r.p. shall not exceed 4 W.
- For frequency hopping systems operating in the band 5725–5850 MHz, the maximum peak conducted output power shall not exceed 1 W. Except as provided in Section A8.4 (5), the e.i.r.p. shall not exceed 4 W.
- For systems employing digital modulation techniques operating in the bands 902–928 MHz, 2400–2483.5 MHz and 5725–5850 MHz, the maximum peak conducted output power shall not exceed 1 W. Except as provided in Section A8.4 (5), the e.i.r.p. shall not exceed 4 W.
As an alternative to a peak power measurement, compliance can be based on a measurement of the maximum conducted output power. The maximum conducted output power is the total transmit power delivered to all antennas and antenna elements, averaged across all symbols in the signalling alphabet when the transmitter is operating at its maximum power control level. Power must be summed across all antennas and antenna elements. The average must not include any time intervals during which the transmitter is off or transmitting at a reduced power level. If multiple modes of operation are implemented, the maximum conducted output power is the highest total transmit power occurring in any mode.
- Point-to-point systems in the bands 2400–2483.5 MHz and 5725–5850 MHz are permitted to have an e.i.r.p. higher than 4 W provided that the higher e.i.r.p. is achieved by employing higher gain directional antennas and not higher transmitter output powers. Point-to-multipoint systems, omnidirectional applications and multiple co-located transmitters transmitting the same information are prohibited from exceeding 4 W e.i.r.p. However, remote stations of point-to-multipoint systems shall be allowed to operate at greater than 4 W e.i.r.p. under the same conditions as for point-to-point systems.
Note: "Fixed point-to-point operation" excludes point-to-multipoint systems, omnidirectional applications and multiple co-located transmitters transmitting the same information.
- Transmitters may operate in the band 2400–2483.5 MHz, employing antenna systems that emit multiple directional beams simultaneously or sequentially, for the purpose of directing signals to individual receivers or to groups of receivers, provided that the emissions comply with the following:
- Different information must be transmitted to each receiver.
- If the transmitter employs an antenna system that emits multiple directional beams but does not emit multiple directional beams simultaneously, the total output power conducted to the array or arrays that comprise the device (i.e. the sum of the power supplied to all antennas, antenna elements, staves, etc. and summed across all carriers or frequency channels) shall not exceed the applicable output power limit specified in sections A8.4 (2) and (4).
- If a transmitter employs an antenna that operates simultaneously on multiple directional beams using the same or different frequency channels, the power supplied to each emission beam is subject to the applicable power limit specified in sections A8.4 (2) and (4). If transmitted beams overlap, the power shall be reduced to ensure that their aggregate power does not exceed the applicable limit specified in sections A8.4 (2) and (4). In addition, the aggregate power transmitted simultaneously on all beams shall not exceed the applicable limit specified in sections A8.4 (2) and (4) by more than 8 dB.
- Transmitters that transmit a single directional beam shall operate under the provisions of sections A8.4 (2), (4) and (5).
A8.5 Out-of-band Emissions
In any 100 kHz bandwidth outside the frequency band in which the spread spectrum or digitally modulated device is operating, the RF power that is produced shall be at least 20 dB below that in the 100 kHz bandwidth within the band that contains the highest level of the desired power, based on either an RF conducted or a radiated measurement, provided that the transmitter demonstrates compliance with the peak conducted power limits. If the transmitter complies with the conducted power limits based on the use of root-mean-square averaging over a time interval, as permitted under Section A8.4 (4), the attenuation required shall be 30 dB instead of 20 dB. Attenuation below the general field strength limits specified in RSS-Gen is not required.
- Date modified: