Canadian Patents Database / Patent 2750152 Summary

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(12) Patent Application: (11) CA 2750152
(54) English Title: OMNI-WAVE DC/AC TRANSFORMER: HYSTERESIS LOOP FREE, VARIABLE, LVDT, RVDT
(54) French Title: TRANSFORMATEUR DE COURANT CONTINU EN COURANT ALTERNATIF OMNI-WAVE DU TYPE SANS BOUCLE D'HYSTERESIS, VARIABLE, DIFFERENTIEL A VARIATION LINEAIRE ET DIFFERENTIEL A VARIATION CIRCULAIRE
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • H02M 1/00 (2007.10)
  • H02M 5/45 (2006.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • HILLIAM, KENNETH G. (Canada)
(73) Owners :
  • HILLIAM, KENNETH G. (Canada)
(71) Applicants :
  • HILLIAM, KENNETH G. (Canada)
(74) Agent: NA
(45) Issued:
(22) Filed Date: 2011-08-22
(41) Open to Public Inspection: 2011-11-02
Examination requested: 2012-05-28
(30) Availability of licence: N/A
(30) Language of filing: English

English Abstract




This invention is designed to eliminate Transformer Core Energy Losses eg.
Hysteresis
Energy Heat Loss. Hysteresis Losses constitute most of the Transformer Core
Losses which
decreases the Efficiency and increases significantly to Energy Losses as
Frequency increases.
Heat Losses can reach the point of igniting the equipment. Cooling methods are
costly and
difficult to be employed on common smaller Consumer Electronics. Electronics
devices are
very inefficient when these are operated below their designed Maximum Load
Capacity.

This invention is designed to increase the efficiency and thus increase the
Power Rating of
smaller transformers without adding more cooling methods. Most Utility
Transformer were
installed decades ago. These old Transformers are becoming much more
inefficient. New
replacements are expensive. The different environmental conditions in a nation
makes it
impossible to mass produce one or a few models which are very economical and
efficient to
transfer power, to be cooled and to be routinely cleaned.

The Primary Source to this invention can be Direct Pulses or AC Sine Waves.
Primary AC
Sine Waves are converted by Rectification into DC Pulses to feed the Primary
Coil.
Transformer Changing DC Pulse Flux Action produces a Pulsed DC Secondary Coil
Current
and a DC Pulsed Voltage. The Primary Flux Density is doubled in Frequency by
the two
Primary DC Full Wave Pulses for each original Input AC Sine Wave doubled the
Frequency
of the Input Primary Coil Voltage and the Output Secondary Voltages, Currents
and the
circulating DC Flux. The Secondary Coil Output Voltage can be converted into
AC Sine
Wave Load Voltage by alternating employing one Circuit Network of Triac Pairs
for each
Single DC Output Pulse to a Common Load. Alternating DC Pulses are fed by two
independent circuits such that the Common Load has an alternating Sine Wave
Voltage.

Each circuit employs two Triacs. Each Triac has one Gate Terminal. Each Gate
works with
its own orientated Polarized Diode to control its own Triac if the Triac has a
Voltage across
its two Main Terminals, MT1 and MT2. The two Diodes of each circuit when
properly biased



by the Original Initial Primary AC Sine Wave will alternatively . Alternating
half 180 degree
waves pass the Zero Axis of the Initial Primary AC Sine Wave to signal their
own Triac to
conduct when the Triac has a Voltage across its two Main Terninals. The Triac
stops
conducting when its Main Terminals have a Voltage of Zero Volts. There is a
slight delay by
the DC Power Pulses on the Main Terminals so the Triac Pairs go Off The
transformer could
be a Step-Up. The Load could be a Variable Transformer made up of a Bank of
Output Coils
and Movable Core, or a Linear / Rotational Voltage Differential Transformer
respectively for
Linear or Rotational Position Controls. A Worm Gear is used with this Core for
the RVDT.
Some of the other advantages are the elimination of the Sinusoidal Waves in
current
Transformer Coils which cause Vibration Wear Noise and Induced Resonance is
other
structures or circuits. The design uses DC Pulse Waves on both the Primary and
the
Secondary Coils so that the Hysteresis Losses are eliminated.

The loss of Hysteresis Heat Energy Losses no longer affects other components,
reduces the
drain on the batteries and the utility supplies even at no-load conditions,
lowers the cost of
employing new safer expensive environmental cooling materials and the running
costs. Less
costly Shielding and design costs are lowered.

The Load could be supplied by Filtered DC Currents if the Triac Networks were
not
connected between the Secondary Coil and the Load. This way the Transformer
can act as a
DC Current or as a DC Voltage Signal Amplifier. Applications are DC Welding or
Supplies.
Through the use of Switches and the use of DC Pulses on both the primary and
on the
Secondary this invention makes it possible to very quickly transform the
Output for other
applications. For example the Triac Characteristics make the invention much
safer to
operate.

The Triac has a Saturation Limitation which can protect the Output and a Triac
in Parallel
with a Load can with a Series Breaker or fuse protect against Overvoltage on
the Load. These
two safety features of this invention are helpful for running motors and
welders safely. Thus
by using Triacs in the design to reduce Hysteresis Energy Losses other
economic and safety
advantages are obtained. Industry must save on the constant NO-Load energy
drains.



A Triac is a bidirectional, three-terminal dual, back-to-back Thyristor (SCR)
switch. This
device can switch the current in either direction by applying a small current
of either polarity
between the gate and one of the two main terminals.

Since it can run cooler, it has significantly improved % Voltage Regulation.


Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.



1

The Embodiments of the Invention in Which an Exclusive Property or Privilege
Is
Claimed Are Defined As Follows:


1. This Invention uses Rectified AC Sine Waves converted to DC Full Wave
Pulses on
both the Primary and on the Secondary Winding Coils of a Transformer, Fig 6.
2. This invention is not the typical Pulse Transformer which uses switching of
Pure DC to
create Square Waves but instead it employs Full Wave AC Sine Waves which are
Rectified to Full Waves to produce DC Pulses or Full AC Sine Waves for
Consumer
Electronics or Utility Transformers for higher efficiencies, Fig 17A, 17B..
3. Note that this invention was designed to produce only Positive DC Pulses or

Alternating Output Sine Waves to increase the efficiency of the Transformer
and
increase the availability of the number of DC Pulse and AC Sine Wave
Applications.
4. These DC Rectified Full Wave Pulses eliminate the Hysteresis Loop Energy
Heat
Losses and its contribution to direct and indirect Component Energy Heat
Losses, Fig
2., 5., 8.
5. DC Pulses do not increase heating losses as the Frequency increases because
only
Alternating Sine Waves contribute to heating by Hysteresis Loop, Fig 2., 14.,
15.
6. This design helps all Transformers which are small or large to operate
closer to
maximum efficiency because they never always run continuously at Maximum
Efficiency Load Capacity and these often run continuously at No-Load, Fig2.,
8.

7. This Transformer Invention is designed to operate much cooler because of
the of the
elimination of the Hysteresis Energy Heat Losses, Fig 2.
8. Lower Transformer Heating reduce the amounts of cooling material and their
running costs Fig 2., 7.
9. Lower Heating Losses increase the Transformer's Safety Rating.
10. Lower Heating Losses allow the use of smaller size efficient transformers
for higher
frequencies, higher power and higher voltages., Fig 14
11. Cooler Utility Transformer Designs can be made much cheaper because less
expensive
environmentally friendly cooling chemicals are required Fig 7.



2

12. Conducting wires which are cooler reduce the Copper Wire Sizes and their
Resistance
and the Copper Energy Losses, Fig 5., 8.
13. DC Pulses do not contribute to Resonance Losses in adjacent metals Fig 5.,
Fig 15.
14. DC Pulses do not contribute to annoying Vibrations and Noise Losses in
adjacent
metals and bases.
15. DC Pulses do not require as much costly material Shielding and its energy
Induced
Losses, Fig 5., 7., 9.
16. The employment of the Triacs Current Saturation and Overvoltage
Characteristics
can protect the Load from High Short Circuits Currents and High Output
Voltages,
Fig 1A,. 1B.,, 7A., 17B., 17C.
17. The basic invention design can be operated very easily, quickly and safely
by switches
for other purposes such as DC Welding or a Filtered Power Supply.
18. The Output Secondary DC Voltage Pulses can be easily converted back to a
Sine
Wave-Form for applications as a Variable Transformer or as a Linear or a
Rotational
Differential Transformer, Fig 10., 11.
19. Cooler Designed Transformer do not require as much expensive insulation so
these are
more economic and can be more compact, eg Laptops Fig 5., 7., 9.
20. This invention produces better Lower % Voltage Regulation by having less
Energy
Losses and higher Induced Output Voltages by this method of " cooling" ie. No
Hysteresis Heating Fig 5.
21. This invention uses DC Pulses on both Coils which eliminates the effects
of Hysteresis
Heating Losses so a Resonant Transformer as a Load can be a practical
efficient
Output Device which can supply high Output Current and high Output Voltages
through the employment of a Series Capacitor in Resonant with an Inductive
Coil
Load eg. Inductive Heating, Fig 20..
22. Consumer Electronics, Home Wiring Systems, Mobile or Isolated Safety/
Rescue
Devices, Transportation Units and Agricultural Systems can be more reliable,
economical and portable, Fig 7.
23. Alternative Energy Devices can now become more widely produced and power
small
independent piratical and profitable enterprises, eg Water Irrigation and Row
Crop
Vegetable Hydroponic or Fish Growing Systems.



3

24. Electronic Switching eg Square Generator operates more quickly than using
NC
Relays for more accuracy and safety with respect to Output Voltage Circuits,
Fig 21.,
22., 23.

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
1
1 Title of this Invention is:

2 Omni-Wave DC / AC Transformer: Hysteresis Loop Free, Variable, LVDT, RVDT.
3 This invention is not the typical Pulse Transformer which uses switching of
Pure DC to
4 create Square Waves but instead it employs Full Wave AC Sine Waves which are
Rectified
to Full Waves to produce DC Pulses or Full AC Sine Waves for efficient
Consumer

6 Electronic or Utility Transformers, Fig 17A., Fig 17B..

7 This invention complements the information which was presented in the
Abstract which
8 should be reviewed because of the nature of a Full Wave Bridge rectifier
Circuit and those
9 of the Triac Characteristics. Fig 6., Fig 1., Fig 17 A.,B.. Review all
Drawing before
proceding, Fig IA to 17B. Sine Waves and DC Pulses are used in this invention.

11 The Input Signal can be a DC Pulse or an AC Signal. This invention focuses
more on AC
12 Transformers because there are many operating and most are very inefficient
at lower
13 Load Demands. AC Polarity changes twice over one Period which can
contribute to
14 significant design costs and running costs. The description will focus on
an Input AC Signal
which is converted to two Full DC Pulses and then back into an AC Signal. The
reason for
16 using DC Pulses on the Input Primary Coil and into the Secondary Coil is to
reduce or to
17 effectively eliminate the Lagging Hysteresis Energy Heating Losses inherent
in AC Signal
18 Transformers, Fig 5., 8.

19 The higher the Frequency then the larger the Hysteresis Energy Heat Losses.
Transformers as Aircraft Applications which run at higher frequencies are
physically
21 lighter in weight but are not very energy efficient unless these are built
with much more
22 expensive special Core Alloys and Litz Coil Wires. High frequency
Transformers operate
23 now under 400 Hz. As Transformers age or cannot be cooled efficiently the
Heating losses
24 become very significant and efficiency drops significantly. So by
eliminating Hysteresis
then transformers can be made smaller, run at higher frequencies, have better
Power
26 Ratings and cost less to build and run even on No-Load Capacity. Loads are
seldom at
27 100% Capacity so efficiency is very low for smaller consumer electronics,
which leads to
28 lower life spans and increasing running costs.eg Laptops.


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
2

1 The elimination of Hysteresis Energy Losses helps reduce Building and also
Transformer
2 Insulation Costs, Cooling Costs and Running Costs even at No-Load Capacity,
Fig 5., 7., 8.
3 Note that the DC Pulses actually double the Frequency of the Input AC
Signal. If the
4 Frequency is doubled then the Cross-Sectional Area, "a" , can be halved
which makes it
possible to manufacture transformers which use a smaller Area, "a", design at
higher
6 Frequencies. Recall the "E " Formula: E = f x N x a B where "f" is
frequency, "N" is
7 number of Copper wire turns, "a" is the Cross-Sectional Area of the
Transformer Coil, B is
8 the Flux Density.

9 The drawing should be analyzed before continuing because of the nature of
time changing
signals , Fig 14., 15 and the two different circuits being activated over
different 180 degree
11 time slots. The signals are changing in Time as well as in Amplitude. Triac
Terminals Mtl
12 and Mt2 , Fig 2, must be Voltage Rated higher than the highest Voltage
which can be
13 applied to them in either direction or they will conduct even if no signal
voltage of either
14 polarity is presented to the Triac Gate , G.

Note that by the Dot Convention which are used on the Orientation of the
Terminals of the
16 Primary and the Secondary Coils and that the design uses a Rectified DC
Pulse on the
17 Primary then the Polarity on Terminals of the Secondary Coil is always
fixed. This is
18 critical to understanding that the Triac can never conduct in both
directions but only in
19 one direction when the two Gates on the Triac Pairs of each Network Circuit
triggers their
respective Triac. To ensure against any transients or false triggering lags or
leading, then a
21 properly biased Diode is added to each of the Output Circuits.

22 The Input AC Signal changes in polarity and as it crosses the Zero Axis
Line with the help
23 by Biasing Diodes will energize two Triac Gates and their Triacs of each
set of two Triacs
24 at different 180 Intervals. The two Triacs of one set are Series connected
with the Load and
the common Secondary Winding of the Transformer. Each set effectively produces
two
26 independent circuit loops to power a common Resistive or Reactive Load, Fig
12., 13., Fig
27 17a and Fig 17B.


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
3

1 Normally Triacs can be trigger to conduct in either direction if using AC
Voltages across
2 their two Main Terminals by a Voltage of either signal polarity on their
Gate Terminal.

3 This invention uses two circuits which operate alternatively and
independently of each
4 other to feed a Common Load.

This invention only uses one polarity +Ve or - Ve for each Gate Pair of their
respective
6 Circuit Network and only one polarity DC Pulse Voltage, the same polarity
voltage by the
7 Dot Convention, across all Triacs of either Circuit. Each Gate of the two
Triacs which form
8 a series circuit loop is controlled by a pair of two Diodes, Fig 17C. These
Diode Gate Pairs
9 are required to conduct a signal of the Input AC alternatively for one half
period. Each
circuit employs a Normally Closed NC Relay. To prevent the circuit from
conducting more
11 than 180 Degrees on alternate half AC Waves, a NC Set of Contacts on a
Relay opens the
12 Gate Signal before 180 on either Half Wave of the AC Imput , eg Maximum
Peak Voltage
13 on each AC Input Half Wave.

14 Triacs stop conducting when the Voltage across their Main Terminals MT1 and
MT2
drops to the Zero Axis or below a biasing Voltage because Triacs are basically
reverse
16 parallel Diodes powered by the DC Pulses. Transistorized circuits could be
alternatively
17 employed to open the Gate Signals for Triac Pairs of each Network circuit.
The small
18 voltage drops across Diodes is tolerated compared to the much greater
losses of Energy
19 Heat Losses,

Note that a special amplifier or a NC, Normally Closed, Relay is connected to
the Input
21 AC Sine wave via a Diode to cut out the signal to the Gate of each Triac
before the
22 Secondary Coil produces another DC Pulse, Fig 17 C. When the relay is
sufficiently
23 energized it opens the signal to the two Gate Diodes of each respective
circuit. This is
24 required because the Gate Signal Degree Width may overlap in time with two
consecutive
Secondary Output DC Pulses so that the respective circuit would never stop
conducting on
26 alternate 180 Degrees DC Pulses. This is similar to motor controls because
a motor is a
27 moving transformer.


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
4

1 A biased Diode on the Triac Outputs which is controlled by an Input NC Relay
of each
2 Circuit ensures that the next 180 degree signal from the Input AC Wave sends
a pulse
3 signal to the other set of Gate Diodes for the other circuit to conduct.
Note the polarity of
4 each set of Gate Diodes and the same polarity on all Triac Outputs. Two Gate
Diodes and
two Diodes on the Triac Outputs of each circuit are used for safety against
short circuits
6 and to reduce to a half the heating of any one diode, Fig 3, 17A, 17B. Also
a Breaker or a
7 Fuse can be employed on the Load.

8 This invention is using the AC Input Signal to create two independent Output
Circuits
9 which alternatively power a Common Load which can be Pure Resistive or
Reactive
Inductance Fig 12., 13., 17A, 17B., 17C. The invention recreates the AC Signal
at the Final
11 Load so that it appears to operate on the Final Load Output as an ordinary
AC Signal
12 Transformer. The Interior of the Transformer operates as a DC Full Wave on
both its
13 Primary and on its Secondary Coils. Note that an AC Transformer is actually
converting
14 DC Pulses one half of the time of one period in one direction and then in
the opposite DC
Pulse Direction across rge Common Load. This invention makes the Interior
Winding
16 Copper Coils and resultant Fields to always travel in the same direction.
Only at the output
17 of the two sets of Triac Networks does the Final Load have a pure AC
Signal. Fig 6., 17A,
18 17B., 17C..

19 Alternatively, Electronic Switching systems are more efficient, require
negligible power
compared to power transformers and offer more time wave matching with the
Secondary
21 Output Circuit Voltages. Electronics which use Variable Duty Cycle Square
Waves have
22 faster responses than operating NC Relays and their NC Contacts. The
Voltage drops are
23 much lower than using Relay Coils so the timing is much closer to the time
that the output
24 DC Pulse reach the Zero Axis. Fig 21., Fig 22.

Variable Duty Cycle Square Waves are Pulses with Straight Edges that cross
repetitively
26 the Zero Axis which can be designed with a Variable Duty Cycle Widths on
both the
27 Positive and on the Negative Pulses. Fig 23. This is to ensure that the two
Networks do not
28 operate at the same time and to prevent one circuit to continue operating
past its 180
29 Degrees of powering the Common Load.


CA 02750152 2011-08-22

1 The Input AC Sine Wave is powering a very low power small AC Transformer.
This small
2 AC Transformer will supply a very low power Electronic Pure DC Filtered
Rectifier and a
3 very low power Square Wave Generator. This Square Wave Generator is a very
low
4 voltage Variable Duty Cycle Square Wave Generator.

5 Any small Phase Shift between the AC Input Sine Wave and the Secondary DC
Pulses can
6 be corrected to be In-Phase with each other.

7 The two Secondary Output Circuits still power the Common Load. This
alternative design
8 uses two Diode Pairs which are polarized with the Top + Ve Pulses of the
Square Wave for
9 the two Gates respectively of the two Triac Pairs of one Output Circuit.
Similarly, two
other Diodes are polarized to operate with the Bottom -Ve Negative Pulse of
the Square
11 Wave, Fig 21., 22., 23.

12 This alternative switching design uses Square Waves rather than AC Relays
which have
13 slower responses and consume more power and become unreliable with time.
This
14 invention is designed to address the improvements for operating
transformers which
operate at different frequencies eg Consumer Power Systems at 50 Hz, 60Hz or
16 Communication 400Hz or modern industrial Resonant or Pulse at xx KHz, etc.

17 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------
18 Other Applications are shown that AC Output Devices can be powered by the
AC Output
19 of this Transformer Invention, eg Variable, L / RDV Transformers Fig 9.,
Fig 10., Fig 11.
The Input Signal can be a DC Pulse or an AC Signal but because this invention
focuses on
21 AC Transformers which change Polarity over one Period then the description
will focus on
22 Input AC Signal which are converted to DC Pulses and then back into an AC
Signal, Fig
23 14., 15. The reason for using DC Pulses on the Input Primary Coil and into
the Secondary
24 Coil is to reduce or to effectively eliminate the Lagging Hysteresis Energy
Heating Losses
inherent in AC Signal Transformers, Fig 5., 8. The higher the Frequency then
the larger
26 the Hysteresis Energy Heat Losses.


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
6

1 As Utility or Power Transformers age, Fig 7., or cannot be cooled
efficiently then the
2 Heating losses become very significant and efficiency drops significantly.
So by eliminating
3 Hysteresis Fig 5., transformers can be made smaller, have better Power
Ratings and cost
4 less to build and run even on No-Load Capacity. Loads are seldom at 100%
Capacity so
efficiency is very low for smaller consumer electronics, which leads to lower
life spans and
6 increasing running costs.

7 SEE the Reference below the Summary for formulas.

8 Transformer Universal EMF Equation : E rms = 4.44 x f x a x N x B

9 This invention produces better % Regulation by having less Energy Losses.

This invention produces better % Voltage Regulation by having less Energy
Losses and
11 higher Induced Voltages and by this method of " cooling"ie. no Hysteresis
Heating.

12 The drawing should be analyzed before continuing because of the nature of
time changing
13 signals , Fig 14., 15 and different circuits being activated over time. The
signals are
14 changing in Time as well as in Amplitude. Triac Terminals Mtl and Mt2 , Fig
2, must be
Voltage Rated higher than the highest Voltage which can be applied to them in
either
16 direction or they will conduct even if no signal voltage of either polarity
is presented to the
17 Triac Gate, G.

18 The Input AC Signal changes in polarity and as it crosses the Zero Axis
Line with the help
19 by Biasing Diodes will energize two Triac Gates and their Triacs of each
set of two Triacs
at different 180 Intervals. The two Triacs of one set are Series connected
with the Load and
21 the Secondary Winding of the Transformer. Each set effectively produces two
independent
22 circuit loops to power a common Load, Fig 17a and Fig 17B.

23
24


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
7

1 Summary: This Description of the Patent is supported with Web References
shown below.

2 Input AC Signal is converted in a Full Wave DC Pulse and controls the two
Output
3 Circuits which supply a common Load . The Output could be DC Pulses,
Filtered Pure DC
4 or AC Sine Power. It provides more efficient energy transfer, higher %
Voltage
Regulation, safer operation and it can run cooler with a higher Power Rating.

6 This invention is not the typical Pulse Transformer which uses switching of
Pure DC to
7 create Square Waves but instead it employs Full Wave AC Sine Waves which are
Rectified
8 to Full Waves to produce DC Pulses or Full AC Sine Waves for Consumer or
Utility

9 Transformers, Fig 17A, 17B., 17C.

Note that this invention was designed to produce Positive Only or Alternating
Output Sine
11 Waves , (although it could produce Square Waves}, to increase the
efficiency and the
12 increase in the number of DC Pulse and AC Sine Wave Applications, Fig 10.,
11.
13 Voltage Regulation is referenced in the Summary Reference Section below.

14 This invention eliminates the Hysteresis Loop Energy Heat Losses which
occur twice in
standard AC Transformers. This invention produces a Full AC Sine Wave at the
Output of
16 the two Triac Networks which feed a Common Inductive Load. The elimination
of the
17 Hysteresis causes the VL Output Voltage full Load to be larger in the
Numerator of the %
18 Voltage Regulation Formula. A cooler running Transformer makes the Copper
Wires

19 cooler and lower Copper Wire Energy Losses. This invention then makes the %
Regulation
lower and much more Efficient. This is significant for small Consumer
Electronics and
21 Home Wiring Systems which do not always run at full capacity and even
consume power if
22 plugged into the source but are power an ON Active Device.

23 Reg%=(VN-VL)/VL*100/1

24 VN is the Output AC Voltage at NO Load while VL is the Output AC Voltage
full Load.
See http://www.butlerwinding.com/store.asp?pid=28355


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
8

1 This invention can be operated as a Resonant Transformer without Hysteresis
Losses
2 because of Rectified Pulses. The Final Load can have a Capacitor in Series
with the
3 Inductive Coil Load. The Resonant Effect is between the Capacitor and the
Final Inductive
4 Coil Load.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------
6
http://www.tabtronics.com/TECHNOLOGY/ElectromagneticBasics/TransformerBasics/ta

7 bid/I lOIDefault.aspx

8 "Resonant transformers:"

9 "A resonant transformer is one that operates at the resonant frequency of
one or more of
its coils. The resonant coil, usually the secondary, acts as an inductor, and
is connected in
11 series with a capacitor. If the primary coil is driven by a periodic source
of alternating

12 current, such as a square or sawtooth wave, each pulse of current helps to
build up an
13 oscillation in the secondary coil. Due to resonance, a very high voltage
can develop across
14 the secondary, until it is limited by some process such as electrical
breakdown. These
devices are therefore used to generate high alternating voltages. The current
available from
16 this type of coil can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines
such as the Van
17 de Graaff generator and Wimshurst machine. They also run at a higher
operating

18 temperature than standard units."

19 "A voltage regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part
of the core to
go into saturation on each cycle of the alternating current. This effect
stabilizes the output
21 of the regulating transformer, which can be used for equipment that is
sensitive to
22 variations of the supply voltage. Saturating transformers provide a simple
rugged method
23 to stabilize an ac power supply. However, due to the hysteresis losses
24 accompanying this type of operation, efficiency is low."

--------------------------------------------------------------------


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
9

1 NOTE: This invention, "OmniWave DC / AC Variable Transformer: Hysteresis
Loop
2 Free, Variable, LVDT, RDT" eliminates the effects of Hysteresis Heating
Losses so a
3 Resonant Transformer can be a practical efficient device which can supply
high Output
4 Current and high Output Voltages.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------
6
http://www.tabtronics.com/TECHNOLOGY/ElectromagneticBasics/TransformerBasics/ta

7 bid/110/Default.aspx

8 The Universal EMF equation

9 "If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding
between its number
of turns, voltage, magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is
given by the

11 universal emf equation:"

12 E=4.44- f =N.a.B

13 "Where Fis the sinusoidal root mean square voltage of the winding, fis the
frequency in
14 hertz, Nis the number of turns of wire, O.is the cross-sectional area of
the core and Bis the
peak magnetic flux density in tesla. The value 4.44 collects a number of
constants required
16 by the system of units."

17 Losses

18 "An ideal transformer would have no losses, and would therefore be 100%
efficient. In
19 practice energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings
(known as copper
loss), and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as
iron loss).
21 Transformers are in general highly efficient, and large power transformers
(around 100
22 MVA and larger) may attain an efficiency as high as 99.75%. Small
transformers such as a
23 plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics may be less
than 85%

24 efficient."

"The losses arise from:


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
1 ^ Winding resistance

2 "Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the
conductors."
3 = Eddy currents

4 "Induced currents circulate in the core and cause its resistive heating."
5 ^ Stray losses

6 "Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the
secondary. A
7 portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby
conductive objects
8 such as the transformer's support structure, and be converted to heat. The
familiar hum or
9 buzzing noise heard near transformers is a result of stray fields causing
components of the
10 tank to vibrate, and is also from magnetostriction vibration of the core."

11 = Hysteresis losses

12 "Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost
to hysteresis in
13 the magnetic core. The level of hysteresis is affected by the core
material."

14 ^ Mechanical losses

"The alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces
between the coils
16 of wire, the core and any nearby metalwork, causing vibrations and noise
which consume
17 power."

18 ^ Magnetostriction

19 "The flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly
with the
alternating magnetic field, an effect known as magnetostriction. This in turn
causes losses
21 due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores."

22 ^ Cooling system


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
11

1 "Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans, oil pumps or
water-cooled
2 heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron
losses. The power
3 used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the
losses of the

4 transformer."

"High frequency operation

6 "The universal transformer emf equation indicates that at higher frequency,
the core flux
7 density will be lower for a given voltage. This implies that a core can have
a smaller cross-
8 sectional area and thus be physically more compact without reaching
saturation. It is for
9 this reason that the aircraft manufacturers and the military use 400 hertz
supplies. They
are less concerned with efficiency, which is lower at higher frequencies
(mostly due to
11 increased hysteresis losses), but are more concerned with saving weight.
Similarly, flyback
12 transformers which supply high voltage to cathode ray tubes operate at the
frequency of
13 the horizontal oscillator, many times higher than 50 or 60 hertz, which
allows for a more
14 compact component."

16 "Transformer universal EMF equation

17 "If the flux in the core is purely sinusoidal, the relationship for either
winding between its
18 rms voltage Erms of the winding, and the supply frequency f, number of
turns N, core cross-
19 sectional area a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal
EMF
equation:"

Erms 7Tf1IVCBpeak 4.44fNQB
21 v'2-

22 "Hypothetically an ideal transformer would work with direct-current
excitation, with the
23 core flux increasing linearly with time. In practice, the flux would rise
to the point where
24 magnetic saturation of the core occurs, causing a huge increase in the
magnetizing current
and overheating the transformer. All practical transformers must therefore
operate with
26 alternating (or pulsed) current."


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
12

1 "The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency.
By
2 operating at higher frequencies, transformers can be physically more compact
because a
3 given core is able to transfer more power without reaching saturation and
fewer turns are
4 needed to achieve the same impedance."

http://info.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Workshop/advice/coils/power loss.html#hyst
6 "Hysteresis loss

7 "Figure PHY shows the effect within ferromagnetic materials known as
hysteresis. "
flux deny P2
Fig, PHY;
The Hysteresis Lace

P
P4
P~ flsld sUenp
P5
8
9 "We start with an unmagnetized sample at the origin (P1) where both field
strength and
flux density are zero. The field strength is increased in the positive
direction and the flux
11 begins to grow along the dotted path until we reach P2. This is called the
initial

12 magnetization curve. "

13 "If the field strength is now relaxed then some curious behavior occurs.
Instead of
14 retracing the initial magnetization curve the flux falls more slowly. In
fact, even when the
applied field is returned to zero there will still be a remaining (remnant or
remanent) flux
16 density at P3. It is this phenomenon which makes permanent magnets
possible. "

17 "To force the flux to go back to zero we have to reverse the applied field
(P4). The field

18 strength here is called the coercivi . We can then continue reversing the
field to get to P5,
19 and so on round this type of magnetization curve called (by J. A. Ewing) a
hysteresis loop."


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
1

1 In the drawings which form a part of this specification,
2 Fig 1A. Triacs:

3 Fig I B. Triacs:

4 Fig 2. Thyrister SCR:
Fig 3. Diode:

6 Fig 4. Diac:

7 Fig 5. Primary and Secondary Coils of a Transformer:
8 Fig 6. Diode Full Wave Bridge Circuit:

9 Fig 7. Utility Power Transformer: Solar Panels and Devices:
Fig 8. Iron Laminated Transformer Core:

11 Fig 9. Variable Transformer:

12 Fig 10. LVDT Linear Voltage Differential Transformer:
13 Fig 11. RVDT Rotary Voltage Differential Transformer:
14 Fig 12. Single Coils. eg. Inductive Load:

Fig 13. Single Resistor eg. Resistive Load:
16 Fig 14. Sine Wave:

17 Fig 15. Sine Wave that is a Rectified Full Wave:

18 Fig 16. Sine Wave that is a Rectified Full Wave with Filtering:
19 Fig 17A. Full Design Block Representation:


CA 02750152 2011-08-22
2

1 Fig 17B. Full Design Using Full Wave Bridge Rectifier and Two Triacs
Networks:

2 Fig 17C., NC Normally Closed Contacts on Relays Control the Gate Voltage
Signals:
3 Fig 18. Pulse Generator using DC Source : NOT MY INVENTION!

4 Fig 19. Hysteresis Graph:

Fig 20. Resonant Transformer LOAD Application for Very Efficient Inductive
Heating:
6 Fig 21. Square Waves

7 Fig 22. AC Sine Wave Phase Shift:

8 Fig 23. Electronic Output Switching using Low Power: AC Transformer, Full
Wave Rectifier,
9 Square Wave Generator, Diodes

Sorry, the representative drawing for patent document number 2750152 was not found.

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Admin Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date Unavailable
(22) Filed 2011-08-22
(41) Open to Public Inspection 2011-11-02
Examination Requested 2012-05-28
Dead Application 2014-10-07

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Filing $200.00 2011-08-22
Request for Examination $400.00 2012-05-28
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 2 2013-08-22 $50.00 2013-06-03
Current owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Current Owners on Record
HILLIAM, KENNETH G.
Past owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Past Owners on Record
None
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.

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Claims 2011-08-22 3 96
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Abstract 2011-08-22 3 136
Cover Page 2011-10-18 2 100
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Abstract 2012-12-31 1 40
Correspondence 2011-09-07 1 16
Prosecution-Amendment 2012-05-28 2 66
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Prosecution-Amendment 2012-06-19 2 101
Prosecution-Amendment 2012-09-12 1 26
Prosecution-Amendment 2012-09-26 3 97
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