Canadian Patents Database / Patent 2781937 Summary

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(12) Patent Application: (11) CA 2781937
(54) English Title: LOADING HYDROGEN OR DEUTERIUM IN HYDRIDE-FORMING METALS
(54) French Title: CHARGEMENT D'HYDROGENE OU DE DEUTERIUM DANS LES METAUX FORMANT DES HYBRIDES
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • C23C 8/08 (2006.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • RICHER, CHARLES J. J. F. (Canada)
  • FRENCH, DAVID J. (Canada)
(73) Owners :
  • RICHER, CHARLES J. J. F. (Canada)
  • FRENCH, DAVID J. (Canada)
(71) Applicants :
  • RICHER, CHARLES J. J. F. (Canada)
  • FRENCH, DAVID J. (Canada)
(74) Agent: NA
(45) Issued:
(22) Filed Date: 2012-06-26
(41) Open to Public Inspection: 2013-03-08
Examination requested: 2012-12-27
(30) Availability of licence: N/A
(30) Language of filing: English

English Abstract




A method is described of producing a high-level loading of hydrogen or
deuterium in a metal
hydride such as palladium or nickel hydride. A hydride-forming metal is placed
in a
pressurizable container along with a water disassociating material, preferably
as finely
divided particles of water-reacting metal. Water is provided to react with the
water
disassociating material and evolve hydrogen or deuterium gas at an elevated
pressure. The
hydrogen or deuterium then flows to the metal hydride increasing the loading
of the metal
hydride with hydrogen or deuterium to a ratio in excess of 0.85.


Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.



CLAIMS

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege
is claimed are
defined as follows:


1. A method of loading a hydride-forming metal with hydrogen or deuterium
comprising the
steps of:

a) providing in a pressure-tight closed containment volume a water
disassociating
material and a hydride-forming metal

b) exposing the water disassociating material to water, which is either light
water, heavy
water, or a mixture of both, under conditions whereby the water will be
reduced to
release hydrogen or deuterium gas, and

c) allowing the hydrogen or deuterium gas so formed to diffuse into the
hydride-forming
metal,

thereby providing the metal hydride with an increased loading of hydrogen or
deuterium.

2. A method as in claim 1 wherein the hydride-forming metal is pre-loaded with
hydrogen or
deuterium up to a level in excess of 0.7:1.

3. A container comprising a pressure-tight closed containment volume
containing a mixture
of the oxide of water disassociating and a hydride-forming metal loaded with
hydrogen or
deuterium atoms with a loading ratio in excess of 0.85:1 formed by the process
of claim 1.
4. A container as in claim 3 containing hydrogen or deuterium gas under a
pressure of at
least 10 atmospheres.

5. A container as in claim 3 comprising pressure-tight electrical connections
for supplying
current to components within the containment volume.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein the water when initially exposed to the water

disassociating material is in a frozen condition, followed by the step of
providing heat to
release water vapor for reaction with the water disassociating-material.

7. The method of claim 1 wherein the assembly of the water disassociating
material and
hydride-forming metal in the containment volume is effected by placing such
components in
a container which is placed in turn positioned in a pressurizable containment
vessel with
passages for delivering water to the containment volume and including the
further the steps
of:

11



1. delivering water to the containment volume within the partially-open
container for
reaction with the water disassociating material to produce hydrogen or
deuterium,
2. closing the container to limit the escape of hydrogen or deuterium after
the hydrogen
or deuterium has evolved and diffused into the hydride-forming metal,
3. removing the pressure containment vessel from the assembly containment
vessel, and
4. sealing the pressure containment vessel to prevent the escape of hydrogen
or
deuterium,

thereby providing a portable container of hydride-forming metal loaded with
hydrogen or
deuterium under pressure.

8. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 6, or 7 wherein the water
disassociating material is
selected from the group consisting of aluminum and zirconium, and the hydride-
forming
metal is selected from the group consisting of nickel and palladium.

9. The container of any one of claims 3, 4 or 5 wherein the oxide of a water
disassociating is
an oxide selected from the group of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and
the hydride
forming metal is selected from the group consisting of nickel and palladium.

10. The container of any one of claims 3, 4 or 5 wherein the oxide of a water
disassociating
is an oxide selected from the group of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and
the hydride
forming metal is selected from the group consisting of nickel and palladium.


12

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

TITLE: Loading Hydrogen or Deuterium in Hydride-Forming Metals
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a method for the introduction and containment of
hydrogen or
deuterium in hydride-forming metals such as nickel or palladium to promote
high loading
conditions.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
The loading of hydrogen into metals is a long-studied science. Recently, for
purposes of
experimentation, interest has grown in the loading of hydrogen and deuterium
atoms or their
nuclei into nickel or palladium at levels approaching and beyond a 0.85:1
molar ratio (H:M
or D:M loading ratio).
Normally, such loading proceeds without exceptional resistance to adsorption
and diffusion
of hydrogen (deuterium) in, for example, palladium up to loading ratio of 0.7 -
0.8 to 1.
However, loading above that level becomes increasingly difficult and once a
higher loading,
e.g. 0.95:1 has been achieved, it is difficult to achieve still higher loading
and to maintain
such loading levels.

It would be desirable to provide a method for both increasing the loading of
hydrogen
(deuterium) into metals such as nickel or palladium and provide a
configuration which will
retain a substantial portion of such achieved higher loadings over time. This
invention
addresses the stated objective.

Hereafter, references to "hydrogen" are intended to include "deuterium" unless
otherwise
stated.

3o Layout of the specification

The invention in its general form will first be described, and then its
implementation in terms
of specific embodiments will be detailed with reference to the drawings
following hereafter.
These embodiments are intended to demonstrate the principle of the invention,
and the
manner of its implementation. The invention in its broadest and more specific
forms will
then be further described, and defined in each of the individual claims which
conclude this
specification.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
According to one aspect of the invention, an assembly is formed of a
containment volume
capable of supporting a high pressure of hydrogen gas and having within its
interior a
I


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

hydrogen absorbing metal to be charged with hydrogen and thereby form a metal
hydride.
Also included within the containment volume is a source of hydrogen that will
provide
hydrogen at an elevated pressure. This source comprises water together with a
water
disassociating material that will disassociate the water, releasing hydrogen
and preferably
s forming an oxide from the oxygen released by the dissociation reaction. The
source is
selected to provide hydrogen through this reaction at an elevated pressure
preferably in
excess of 10 atmospheres.

The water used in the source may be either light or heavy water, or mixtures
thereof. The
i o heavy water optionally may be either full or half deuterated water.
Hereafter, and
throughout, references to "water" unless otherwise indicated refers to water
in any one of
these forms.

As the water reacts with the water disassociating material the released
hydrogen gas will
15 build up pressure and tend to diffuse into the hydride-forming metal,
increasing the loading
of such gas or their nuclei in the hydride-forming metal. Correspondingly, the
water
disassociating material will be converted to an oxide, utilizing the oxygen
released from the
disassociated water. Ideally, the water disassociating material will capture
all of the oxygen
or nearly all, serving as an "oxygen getter". This will allow for the
production of oxygen-
20 free hydrogen. However, in one configuration of the invention some release
of oxygen can
be tolerated through the use of a filtering system.

Containment volume alternatives

25 The hydrogen absorbing metal and hydrogen source may be located in the
containment
volume proximate to each other. This will provide a monolithic containment
volume.
Alternately, the containment volume may be divided into compartments separated
from but
communicating with each other which respectively contain the hydrogen
absorbing metal
and the hydrogen source. In this latter configuration, the hydrogen source may
experience an
30 elevated temperature without a corresponding elevation in temperature of
the hydrogen
absorbing metal.

Filtering hydrogen

35 In the case where the containment volume is divided into compartments, the
communicating
passageway between the respective compartments for allowing the transfer of
hydrogen may
include a hydrogen filter which selectively permits preferential passage of
hydrogen while
minimizing the transfer of other molecules. A material suitable for this
hydrogen filter
would be a block or disc of palladium metal. In particular, the filter can
serve to limit the
40 transfer of oxygen as well as other impurities between chambers. If needed,
multiple filters
having different characteristics can be employed to deliver relatively pure
hydrogen to the
metal-hydride.

2


CA 02781937 2012-06-26
Water disassociating materials

The water disassociating material that will disassociate the water, releasing
hydrogen and
forming an oxide from the oxygen released by the dissociation reaction may be
a metal such
as any one of the alkali metals, alkali-earth metals or more preferably
aluminum or zirconium
to release substantially pure hydrogen. To increase the reactivity of the
metal in the case of
aluminum or zirconium, such metal may be in the form of finely divided
particles that on
heating will allow a more rapid reaction to occur. Use of a compartmentalized
containment
i o permits the water disassociating material to be heated separately from the
hydrogen
absorbing metal. Use of a compartmentalized containment also permits the use
of other
substances to enhance the generation of hydrogen, such as the presence of
sodium hydroxide
to remove the oxide layer from aluminum and thereby permit the reaction of the
aluminum
metal with water to proceed more rapidly.
A suitable process for generating hydrogen under pressure particularly in a
compartmentalized containment arrangement is described in US patent 7,393,440
issuing on
July 1, 2008 to the National Research Council of Canada. This reference
discloses in
galvanic cell mode an electro-positive metal, preferably aluminum or an
aluminum alloy
(having a significant amount of available aluminum to generate hydrogen) as a
cathode
electrode in a water-based electrolyte, and a more electro-negative metal as
the anode. In the
galvanic mode with aluminum as the cathode, magnesium or magnesium alloy is a
preferred
metal for the anode. A controlling electric circuit connection extends between
the two
electrodes. In electrolytic cell mode both the cathode and anode comprise
aluminum and the
electrical circuit provides a current to the respective electrodes.

The interconnecting electric circuit serves to control the passage of electric
current between
the electrodes and permits the production of hydrogen on demand. This system
as tested was
able to generate hydrogen at the pressure of 14,341 psi, with higher pressures
being
prospectively available. Other methods of generating hydrogen are also
disclosed. The
contents of this document including those of the other methods mentioned are
adopted by
reference herein.

Instrumenting the containment volume
There is an interest in exposing highly loaded metal hydride to various types
of stimuli, such
as electrical currents, electrical and magnetic fields, and ultrasound.
Optionally, the
containment volume may be accessed by pressure-tight electrical connections
for supplying
current to the metal hydride and/or communicating with other devices such as
ultrasonic
sound generators, magnetic coils or electrostatics electrodes for carrying-out
of experiments
with the metal hydride under high hydrogen pressure conditions. Such
electrical connections
may also serve to provide heating to the subject metal hydride.

3


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

Electrical connecting wires may be attached to the hydride-forming metal when
in a form
that would present an electrical resistance that varies with hydrogen loading.
Such an effect
may be difficult to achieve when the hydride-forming metal is finely divided
or mixed with
an insulating material. In such cases a collateral wire of a metal having
reliable loading-
resistance characteristic may be positioned in the region where such hydride-
forming metal is
present. Electrical connections can be used to determine the electrical
resistance of the metal
in the wire and provide an indirect measure of the degree of loading of
hydrogen-deuterium
that is achieved in the hydride-forming metal. Ideally, the metal in the wire
will be the same
1 o metal as the hydride-forming metal.

In the case where a collateral wire is employed, such wire can be provided
with a gas-
permeable insulation layer allowing it to pass through such powdered hydride-
forming metal
without being effected electrically.
Sealing the containment volume

The containment volume serves to prevent the escape of hydrogen gas. Certain
metals, e.g.
nickel, if used to provide the container for the containment volume may allow
gas to escape
through diffusion. This process may be tolerable in the case of experiments
being carried out
in short periods of time. Alternately, sealing capacity of the containment
volume may be
enhanced by applying a barrier coating, e.g. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
or a plating of
another metal that is a more effective barrier to hydrogen diffusion to the
outside surface of
the container.
Access to the containment volume for loading

As a further variant in the process of the invention, the reaction by which
the water is
combined with the hydride-forming metal may be carried out in an additional
pressure
containment vessel that has access ports for allowing gas and vapor to enter
into the interior
of the primary container in a controlled manner. This pressure containment
vessel can be
used to initially purge the assembly of undesired gases supplied to access
ports. Examples of
gases to be purged are oxygen and nitrogen. Hydrogen may be used as the purge
gas.

The ported reaction vessel can also be used to pre-load the hydride-forming
metal with an
initial loading of the hydrogen to bring it up to a pre-reaction loading level
e.g., in excess of
0.7:1. This is achieved by introducing hydrogen gas into the interior volume
of the
containment vessel under pressure. This may optionally be carried-out in
conjunction with
heating or cyclically heating the contents of the container with its active
ingredients.

4


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

Once the desired initial loading level is achieved in this manner, water vapor
may be
introduced into the sweep gas and allowed to react with the water
disassociating material
present within the containment volume generating further hydrogen gas under
pressure.

A reservoir of hydrogen

As indicated, hydrogen can not only be used as the sweep gas but the pressure
of such gas
may be increased in order to pre-load the hydride-forming metal prior to
effecting the
reaction with water. Once the reaction with water has been initiated, if a
less than
1o stoichiometric ratio of water is to be reacted with the water
disassociating material present in
the containment volume then unreacted water disassociating material can remain
in such
volume. If such water disassociating material will itself form a hydride, as
in the case of
zirconium, then this metal can act as a hydrogen reservoir. This will then
become a further,
ongoing, source for hydrogen if the pressure of this gas drops within the
containment
volume, as, for example, by way of leakage.
Useful experiments

Once exceptionally high loadings have been achieved, experiments can be
carried out on the
heavily-loaded metal hydride such as by exposing it to ultrasound, magnetic or
electric fields
(static or oscillating), heating and cyclic heating, and otherwise determining
the
characteristics of this material when in such highly loaded condition in the
presence of such
and other stimulations.

The resulting assembly may then be used in experiments which require the use
of highly
loaded metal hydrides. One example is use in exploring the potential to
generate a low
energy nuclear reaction within the metal hydride so formed. If heat is
involved the container
will serve as a convenient source for delivering such heat.
3o Format of the specification

The foregoing summarizes the principal features of the invention and some of
its optional
aspects. The invention may be further understood by the description of the
preferred
embodiments, in conjunction with the drawings, which now follow.
Wherever ranges of values are referenced within this specification, sub-ranges
therein are
intended to be included within the scope of the invention unless otherwise
indicated or are
incompatible with such other variants. Where characteristics are attributed to
one or another
variant of the invention, unless otherwise indicated, such characteristics are
intended to apply
to all other variants of the invention where such characteristics are
appropriate or compatible
with such other variants.

5


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is an exploded cross-sectional view of an outer pressure containment
vessel which
serves as a pressure container into which components of the invention may be
assembled in
an inner assembly container prior to the reaction of water with the water
disassociating-metal
powder

Figure 2 is an exploded cross-sectional view of the inner container of Figure
1 with finely
io divided, powdered water disassociating material present surrounding a
hydride-forming
metal in the form of a ribbon to which electrical connectors are attached.

Figure 3 is the view of Figure 2 with the inner assembly container lid closed
onto the
container bottom showing the contents after the reaction of the water
disassociating material
with water has produced hydrogen under pressure.

Figure 4 is a perspective view of the closed container of Figure 3 with the
contents pressure-
sealed therein for portability and electrical leads extending outwardly from
the container to
provide electrical connection to the loaded metal hydride.
Figure 5 is an alternative variant to Figures 2 and 3 wherein the metal
hydride is in the form
of finely divided particles that are positioned or fixed to the inside walls
of the container,
with the inner volume occupied by an oxide formed after the reaction of the
water
disassociating material with water. Also shown in figure 5 is a loading sensor
in the form of
an insulated wire passing through the container where the wire is made of the
same material
as the metal hydride particles and the installation is hydrogen porous.

Figure 6 depicts a compartmentalized containment volume having a reaction
chamber on one
side for generating hydrogen that is being heated and a testing volume on the
other side for
containing the metal hydride to be loaded with hydrogen.

Figure 7 is an alternate version of Figure 6 wherein the reaction chamber
includes an
electrical cell which may be either galvanic or electrolytic together with an
electrical control
circuit.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

In Figure 1 a sealable containment vessel 1 which has a base IA and top lB
which may be
joined through studs 2 and nuts 2A to produce a sealed reaction volume 3
provided by a well
4 in the base 1A. The containment vessel 1 is capable of maintaining a high
pressure
environment within the reaction volume 3 for reacting components both during
the delivery
or release of hydrogen and thereafter.

6


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

Within the well 4 is located the bottom portion 5A of the container 5 of the
invention which
defines the containment volume, a subvolume of the reaction volume 3. An upper
lid 5B
shown in exploded view above the bottom portion 5A in Figures 1 and 2 may be
lowered to
engage with the bottom portion 5A of the container 5. Ribbed edges 16A, 16B on
the
bottom portion 5A and lid 5B are dimensioned to support the eventual formation
of a
pressure-containing seal upon conclusion of the reaction.

The container 5 after the reaction is intended to be removed from the reaction
container and
1o thereafter further sealing operations such as by soldering or brazing or
applying an adhesive
may be used to enhance the seal between the bottom portion 5A and lid 5B.
While in the
reaction volume 3 the mating of the bottom and lid portions 5A, 5B may admit a
degree of
gas flow in cases where such flow is utilized as further described herein.

Thereafter, the container 5 may be coated with a barrier 19 to limit the
outflow of hydrogen
gas 13. Alternately, the container 5 may be pre-coated, as by electrolysis,
with a coating 19
which will serve this function (see Figure 3).

In Figure 2 the assembly bottom portion 5A is shown filled with a water
disassociating
material powder 7 (shown as "Xs") which surrounds a ribbon of hydride-forming
metal 8.
Optionally but preferably, this powder 7 may comprise aluminum or zirconium.
To the ends
of the ribbon 8 are attached electrical leads 9. Optionally, the exterior
portions of the leads 9
outside the assembly container 5 may be stored in a gap or in separate sub-
chambers within
the reaction container 5 as part of the pressurized environment during the
initial part of the
process when the components are being reacted together under pressure. The
entry points
for these electrical wires 9 into the container 5 are sealed both to contain
pressure and
maintain electrical isolation.

As a variant in the process of the invention where the hydrogen disassociating
material is in a
3o highly reactive form, the water 10 may be combined with the hydride-forming
metal 8 in an
initial frozen condition to delay the reaction of the water with the water
disassociating
material where such material as highly reactive. This delay may be used to
complete the
assembly of the constituent components in the container 5 and optionally
containment vessel
1 before any significant reaction occurs. Thereafter, the reaction may be
encouraged to
occur by applying heat to melt the water 10, and with further elevation of the
temperature,
release water vapor to accelerate the reaction of the water 10 with the water
disassociating
material particles.

Demonstrating this variant of the invention, Figure 2 shows frozen water 10
(shown as "O's")
4o distributed over the surface of the hydride-forming metal 8 before any
reaction has occurred.
Once sealed, the container 5 may be warmed to melt the water 10 and, with
further heating,
release water vapor into the reaction volume 3 in order to effect the
reaction. In this reaction
7


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

the water 10 is reduced by the water disassociating material 7, releasing into
the interior of
the container 5 the hydrogen (or deuterium) component of the water 10 as a gas
13. (Shown
as multiple "."; see Figure 3). Due to the pressure seal effected by the
surrounding reaction
container 5, this gas 13 will tend to flow into the hydride-forming metal 8.
As an alternative to pre-inserting water 10 in the manner shown in Figure 2,
water can
eventually be introduced into the container 5 through gas-flow ports 11
controlled by valves
12 connected to the base IA as shown in the Figure 1. The ports 11 may be used
to provide
a flushing sweep gas to flush the contents of the container 5 before the
reaction occurs. They
i o can also be used to pre-load the hydride-forming metal 8 with hydrogen
using pressurized
hydrogen gas 13 as the sweep gas.

In Figure 3 the components in the container 5 are shown after the reaction has
occurred. In
this Figure 3 the original amount of finely divided water disassociating
particles 1 has largely
been converted into an oxide 17 (shown as multiple "/") by reason of the fact
that the water
disassociating material is one which will react with water to form an oxide
and release
hydrogen, (shown as multiple "."). Examples of a suitable water disassociating
material are
zirconium and aluminum. Examples of metals that are conducive to forming a
metal hydride
are nickel and palladium. The resulting assembly provides a portable container
that may then
be used in experiments which require the use of heavily loaded metal hydrides.

The water disassociating material 7 is preferably in the form of a very finely
divided form in
order to allow a rapid reaction to occur. Heat may be provided to raise the
temperature and
accelerate the hydrogen generation reaction, taking care not to overheat the
metal hydride 8.
If the water disassociating material 7 has a tendency to form an oxide
barrier, as in the case
of aluminum, which will slow the reaction, a small amount of a strong base
such as sodium
hydroxide may be included in the inner volume of the container 1 to remove
this oxide layer
and encourage the reduction reaction to proceed. Use of such an accelerator is
subject to it
not interfering with experiments that may be carried-out on the metal hydride
8.
The hydride-forming metal 8 can be in powder form or in solid form such as
wire, ribbon or
otherwise. Preferably, the hydride-forming metal 8 has been pre-loaded with
hydrogen gas
13 up to a level or in excess of 0.7 (corresponding to higher limits of the
beta phase hydride
as presently recognized). Or loading may be effected in the reaction volume 3
as described
earlier herein.

In the case where the hydride-forming metal 8 is in powder form, a
supplemental inner wire
20 of the same metal 8 as shown in Figure 5 may pass through such powder with
electrical
connections 21 being made to the ends of such inner wire. This inner wire may
include an
insulative layer 22 that is permeable to hydrogen gas 13. This inner wire 20
and the
associated electrical connections 21 can be used to indirectly measure the
degree of loading
of the hydrogen-deuterium within the hydride forming metal powder 8.

8


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

The degree of loading of hydrogen into some hydride-forming metals, and
particularly
deuterium in Palladium, can be monitored by measuring the resistance of such
metal as the
loading progresses. It is known that such resistance reaches a maximum around
approximately 0.6:1 - 0.7:1 loading and then starts to decline. Cf. Luo N. and
G. H. Miley,
"First-Principles Studies Of Ionic And Electronic Transport In Palladium
Hydride", 10th
International Conference On Cold Fusion, 2003. By attaching the electrical
connectors 21 as
shown in Figure 5 to the hydride-forming metal, or to a sample of that metal
in an electrically
continuous form 20, a signal may be generated showing the change in the
loading of the
1 o hydride-forming metal 8 which may be in a particular form.

While Figures 4 and 5 depict a generally rectangular container 5, the form
factor for the
container 5 can be varied. An alternate shape can be that of a cylinder
wherein access to the
interior is provided through ends that can be sealed as by threading or other
means to achieve
the pressure-tight enclosure. Instrumentation access can be effected through
the cylinder
walls.

In Figure 6 the containment volume 5 is compartmentalized having a reaction
chamber 23 on
one side for generating hydrogen 13 that is being heated and a testing volume
24 on the other
side for containing the metal hydride 8 to be loaded with hydrogen 13. A valve
30 controls
the flow of gas between these two volumes.

The testing volume 24 is accessed by two gas flow ports 11A having valves 12A.
As with
respect to Figure 1 the ports 1 IA may be used to provide a sweep gas and pre-
load the metal
hydride 8 with hydrogen 13. Test leads 9A connect to the metal hydride 8
within the testing
volume 24. Leads 25 connect to an exemplary electrostatic grid 26 as a form of
instrumentation which might be used to apply experimental electrostatic fields
to the metal
hydride 8 when heavily loaded with hydrogen 13. Such leads 25 may similarly
connect to
other forms of instrumentation such as an ultrasonic generator, magnetic coils
or other
3o devices to stimulate reactions in the metal hydride 8.

In the reaction volume 23, also accessed by gas ports 11B having valves 12B
present for
similar purposes, water disassociating material 5 combined with water 10 may
be heated by a
heat source 27 to accelerate the generation of hydrogen 13. The water may be
either
introduced into the chamber 23 as a liquid, or delivered as a vapor through
the gas ports 11B.
A hydrogen filter 30, e.g. Palladium metal or a 23 per cent silver-palladium
optimum
permeability, allows hydrogen 13 to pass from the reaction volume 23 to the
testing volume
24 while minimizing the passage of other compounds.

In Figure 7 the reaction chamber 23 includes a pair of electrodes 35A, 35B
which may be
operated either galvanically or electrolytically together with an electrical
control circuit 36.
In galvanic cell mode one electrode 35A is an electro-positive metal,
preferably aluminum or

9


CA 02781937 2012-06-26

an aluminum alloy (having a significant amount of available aluminum to
generate
hydrogen) which serves as a cathode electrode. The other electrode 35B is a
more electro-
negative metal which serves as the anode. Both are immersed in a water-based
electrolyte
37. In the galvanic mode with aluminum as the cathode 35A, magnesium or
magnesium alloy
is a preferred metal for the anode 35B the controlling electric circuit 36
simply provides a
connection between the two electrodes. This connection may include a
resistance to slow the
rate of generation of hydrogen 13

In electrolytic cell mode both the cathode 35A and anode 35B may be of the
same hydrogen-
io producing material, preferably aluminum, and the electrical circuit 36
provides a current to
be respective electrodes 35A, 35B. Varying this current can be used to vary
the rate of
production of hydrogen.

CONCLUSION
The foregoing has constituted a description of specific embodiments showing
how the
invention may be applied and put into use. These embodiments are only
exemplary. The
invention in its broadest, and more specific aspects, is further described and
defined in the
claims which now follow.
These claims, and the language used therein, are to be understood in terms of
the variants of
the invention which have been described. They are not to be restricted to such
variants, but
are to be read as covering the full scope of the invention as is implicit
within the invention
and the disclosure that has been provided herein.


A single figure which represents the drawing illustrating the invention.

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Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date Unavailable
(22) Filed 2012-06-26
Examination Requested 2012-12-27
(41) Open to Public Inspection 2013-03-08
Dead Application 2015-05-28

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Filing $200.00 2012-06-26
Request for Examination $400.00 2012-12-27
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 2 2014-06-26 $50.00 2014-06-26
Current owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Current Owners on Record
RICHER, CHARLES J. J. F.
FRENCH, DAVID J.
Past owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Past Owners on Record
None
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.

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Document
Description
Date
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Number of pages Size of Image (KB)
Abstract 2012-06-26 1 18
Description 2012-06-26 10 708
Claims 2012-06-26 2 93
Drawings 2012-06-26 2 43
Representative Drawing 2012-08-06 1 8
Cover Page 2013-02-14 2 39
Drawings 2013-10-07 2 50
Abstract 2013-10-07 1 18
Claims 2013-10-07 3 107
Description 2013-10-07 15 751
Claims 2014-02-17 2 79
Description 2014-02-17 15 751
Correspondence 2012-08-07 1 36
Prosecution-Amendment 2012-10-17 2 36
Prosecution-Amendment 2012-08-07 2 87
Prosecution-Amendment 2012-12-27 5 207
Prosecution-Amendment 2013-11-15 3 131
Prosecution-Amendment 2013-03-15 1 18
Prosecution-Amendment 2013-07-05 5 231
Prosecution-Amendment 2013-10-07 42 2,241
Prosecution-Amendment 2014-02-17 9 393
Prosecution-Amendment 2014-02-28 1 21
Fees 2014-06-26 1 28
Prosecution-Amendment 2015-01-12 1 33
Prosecution-Amendment 2015-05-25 11 567
Fees 2016-06-23 1 30
Correspondence 2016-07-12 1 29