Archived — Digital Literacy in Canada: From Inclusion to Transformation
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Digital Literacy Implementation Strategy
This section builds on the conceptual framework and concrete analysis set out in the previous sections to respond to the following discussion questions:
- What is the best way to respond to the most critical challenges in skills development for a digital economy?
- What is the best way to address these challenges?
- What can we do to ensure that labour market entrants have digital skills?
- What is the best way to ensure the current workforce gets the continuous up-skilling required to remain competitive in the digital economy? Are different tactics needed for SMEs versus large enterprises?
- How will the digital economy impact the learning system in Canada? How we teach? How we learn?
- What strategies could be employed to address the digital divide?
For ease of reference, our responses to these questions have been noted in the margins.
Over the past year there has been considerable high-level dialogue on what Canada needs to do to remain competitive in a digital world.Footnote 27 Fuelling these discussions is the awareness that other nations are developing action plans to strengthen their digital economies, and the recognition that if Canada is to remain competitive and regain a leadership role internationally, a similar strategic focus and action plan is needed here.Footnote 28
Up until now, much of the dialogue that has taken place in Canada has focused on infrastructure development, use of ICTs to promote business innovation, and ways to ensure a stronger, safer online marketplace.Footnote 29 Media Awareness Network, along with stakeholders from government, academia, councils on learning, ministries of education, industry organizations, library associations, and institutes for information technology and digital media, believes that a much broader approach is needed if we are to cultivate a digitally literate and economically competitive country.
Research and international precedent indicate that digital literacy supports participation, inclusion, and innovation in a knowledge economy. For example, government initiatives for the digital economy from the UK (Digital Britain), New Zealand (Digital Strategy 2.0), Australia (Future Directions) and the United States (National Broadband Plan: Connecting America) have positioned digital literacy as a crucial component of a knowledge economy. Each recognizes acquisition of digital literacy as an "essential life skill" which represents a process of life-long learning that incorporates K-12 and post-secondary education, vocational training, and public awareness campaigns.
We believe that Canada should be in step with these forward-thinking countries who are implementing comprehensive digital literacy strategies, starting at the elementary school level and continuing throughout the lifespan, in order to broaden participation in, and uplift standards for, production and consumption in the Canadian knowledge economy.
Evidence and best practice indicate that effective implementation of digital literacy programs should take place in four interlocking spheres of influence: Education, Job Training, Government, and Public Awareness and Community Programs. Each sphere relates to a different segment of the population and expresses different attitudes and needs; only through an integrated approach operating simultaneously within each implementation sphere will widespread digital literacy become a reality.
Education at all stages of life is central to any digital literacy strategy. Although there has been considerable dialogue among stakeholders leading up to this consultation on the importance of skills development at the post-secondary level, very little discussion has taken place on the ICT and digital literacy skills that need to be cultivated among students before they enter college or university. In this section, we will highlight the importance of implementing digital literacy into Kindergarten to Grade 12 education as part of Canada's national plan.
Digital media are an omnipresent reality for today's youth. From cell phones to iPods to video games to computers, digital media touch every aspect of students' lives. Digital activities popular with youth may appear to be child's play, but research indicates that these digitized toys and pursuits help young people develop a wide range of aptitudes and skills that are needed in a digital economy.Footnote 30 It is, therefore, imperative that their educational experience acknowledges this reality. Education of our youth must not only utilize technology, but also provide the education necessary for young people to safely, effectively, and responsibly engage with digital media.
In elementary school many students already have basic technological skills and a comfort level with digital media. What is often sorely lacking, however, is depth of understanding. It is these critical awareness skills that educators have a core responsibility to provide to youth.
Technology in the classroom can be used to facilitate interpersonal learning between students and teachers and students and peers.Footnote 31 It is not intended to replace these essential learning relationships but rather be used to provide platforms for collaboration and tools for organization. Educational digital media can also enhance the teaching and learning experience through its unique ability to engage and provide feedback to users, adapt to unique user situations, and track student progress.Footnote 32
We are evolving towards a much more robust information system where groups working together can solve problems that are far more complex than can be confronted by individuals. And schools can actively prepare students for such a world — by allowing them to develop and refine their individualized expertise, by providing complex problems which require collective effort to resolve, by teaching them the ethics involved in working in such a highly collaborative and open-ended context.Footnote 33
Excluding digital media from schools creates a potentially damaging split between educational and personal experience. Digital media are a knowledge technology; keeping them out of the classroom creates a significant dissonance in how youth gather and share knowledge. Bridging the home and school continuum in this regard is fundamental to shaping a comprehensive educational approach.
Beyond teaching students about digital media, interactive multimedia tools should be integrated into the curriculum. The UK-based Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum argues that it will become "increasingly important that children have the ICT skills which will enable them to apply the technology of the future and meet the challenges of an uncertain world with confidence and flexibility. A sound grasp of ICT is fundamental to engagement in society, and the foundations for this engagement must be laid in primary schools. Along with literacy and numeracy, the use of technology to develop skills for learning and life should be at the core of the primary curriculum."Footnote 34
The report goes on to call for digital literacy to be taught both discretely as well as integrated into other curricula. Digital media should be used to invigorate all domains of learning including traditional literacy and numeracy. Teaching digital media across the whole curriculum will deepen understanding of both the subject matter at hand and increase levels of digital literacy.Footnote 35
In Manitoba's A Continuum Model for Literacy with ICT Across the Curriculum (K-12), a distinction is made between ICT literacy, which encompasses the skills for using digital technology effectively (digital life skills), and literacy with ICT, where youth select and use digital technology to support critical and creative thinking about information and about communication (digital literacy skills). The framework notes: "ICT literacy is a critical component of literacy with ICT, but is not sufficient in itself."Footnote 36
The challenge of cross-curriculum or 'whole curriculum' technology integration is to ensure that digital media do not distract from core learning objectives.Footnote 37 It is therefore imperative that teachers be given the pre-service training and professional development opportunities necessary to integrate digital media into the classroom and to develop the "psychological space" needed for students to be creative and experiment with them. The overarching goal is to instil a combination of technical and critical thinking skills in teachers, who will then be much better equipped to impart them to their students.
Teachers in many schools are using technology to support different learning styles and engage all learners… What is missing is a comprehensive set of guidelines for all teachers that describes how they should use technology to: promote innovative thinking and collaborative work; incorporate rich digital resources into student learning; employ varied assessment methods that can in turn improve learning; model ethical practices in the digital age; and strengthen their own professional development.Footnote 38
The challenge in Canada is to determine how the Federal government can promote a comprehensive digital literacy strategy when education falls under provincial jurisdiction. A digitally literate population is a matter of national prosperity and as such, a digital literacy strategy encompassing all Canadians requires support on the Federal level.
The Industry Canada program SchoolNet, which sunsetted in 2008, was a partnership between federal, provincial and territorial governments, the education community, and the private sector to promote the effective use of information and communications technologies in learning. This program might provide a model on how the Government of Canada could partner and move forward with educational stakeholders in promoting digital literacy.
Another model from the UK that could be adopted in Canada is Futurelab, an independent not-for-profit organization that is dedicated to transforming teaching and learning to make it more relevant and engaging to 21st century learners. In order to support educators in adopting new teaching practices, Futurelab partners and collaborates with various educational stakeholders from policy, industry, and research and practice communities.Footnote 39
In the United States, the government's approach to facilitating and guiding education has been to position the White House as a convener, facilitating small meetings of stakeholders, (less than 100 people) with clear actionable deliverables articulated at the conclusion. To ensure a coordinated and comprehensive approach to digital literacy skills development that builds on and supports national standards for digital literacy for all citizens, the Canadian government should facilitate regular gatherings that bring together representatives from ministries of education and faculties of education who are involved in digital literacy curriculum development and/or pedagogy and design. And their findings should feed into a larger conference with all stakeholders.
The skills needed to effectively participate in a knowledge-based digital economy include the capacities to find, organize, understand, evaluate, create, and share information through constantly evolving digital technologies — technologies and innovations that demand continual learning and re-learning. After individuals start their careers, it is imperative that they are provided with the resources to continue developing their digital literacy skills. The economic benefits of a digitally literate workforce have been well demonstrated and these skills must be continually augmented and sustained in order to fully realize the benefits of digital media in the workplace.
According to the ongoing "Connectivity Scorecard" study, which measures and then ranks 50 countries based on connectivity of ICT's and how this contributes to economic performance, Canada ranks 9th in the world. Notes study creator Dr. Leonard Waverman, "half of the productivity gap between Canada and the United States [which scored highest in the results] can be attributed to Canadian businesses' lower digital literacy."
It is important to recognize that even workers who are familiar with digital media technologies do not necessarily have appropriate skills for the workplace.Footnote 40 Therefore, workplace specific programs must be supported by public resources and implementation encouraged at the industry level. Industry needs to be given both the resources and the reason to support digital literacy for their workers. Current government training offerings must be expanded and provided in an easily accessible online format. Digital labour training programs must not only focus on basic usage but also on understanding and creating digital media.
Fostering and promoting digital literacy among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is a particularly important challenge. SMEs make up more than 99 per cent of the business establishments in Canada, employ a substantial portion of the Canadian work force, and are a major source of job creation. However, compared to large enterprises and public institutions SMEs have been slow to adopt digital technologies in their internal operations, establish a web presence, and move their businesses online by developing advanced e-commerce capabilities. As the global digital economy continues to grow, this leaves SMEs — and the many Canadians who depend on them for their livelihoods — vulnerable to foreign competition in the Canadian market, and may exclude them from opportunities to participate in the global supply chains of major multi-national enterprises.
From 2002-04, the Canadian e-Business Initiative (CeBI) examined the extent to which SMEs had adopted digital technologies and Internet business solutions in considerable depth through surveys and focus groups. CeBI found that there were a number of barriers to digital adoption by Canadian SMEs — including, cost, time, and uncertainty about return on investment — and that patterns of adoption and perception of barriers varied by firm size and industry sector.
However, as reported in the final CeBI report, Fast Forward 5.0, issues related to digital literacy were a common problem facing many SMEs. These issues included lack of knowledge about digital business solutions, difficulty in attracting and retaining personnel with digital skills, and the challenges of managing business process transformation and product and service innovation through the application of digital technology. CeBI concluded that SMEs themselves, along with colleges, universities and other stakeholders had to become more engaged in building digital literacy among SMEs.
Since CeBI completed its work, similar findings and recommendations have been made in the 2006 report of the Telecommunications Policy Review Panel, the 2007 National Roundtable on the e-Economy, and the 2009 Forum on the Digital Economy. A common theme of all these previous discussions has been the need to develop innovative initiatives that will meet the digital literacy needs of SMEs while recognizing the significant differences that exist, not only between large scale and smaller enterprises, but among firms of different sizes and in different industry sectors.
This is a complex challenge. However, the time has clearly come to include action on developing greater digital literacy among SMEs as a cornerstone of the digital economy strategy. Governments can play an important role in meeting this objective by identifying and implementing initiatives to promote greater digital literacy through appropriate incentives and programs that support economic and regional development and human resource training.
A central consideration of a national e-strategy must also be digital literacy training for new Canadians. Many immigrants to Canada have had minimal access to digital technologies and would benefit greatly from increased exposure and training with these tools. Digital literacy support for this population segment would work to both bridge the digital divide and facilitate economic and social integration. Indeed, providing digital literacy skills to new Canadians should be a central consideration of a national digital economy strategy and consequently, should also be at the foundation of all job training programs.
The federal, provincial, and territorial governments have a number of roles in supporting digital literacy. In addition to being strategic drivers and resource providers for digital media initiatives within their respective jurisdictional spheres, all governments have a responsibility to facilitate digital literacy through e-government programs and public service employee training. As public services continue to migrate to digital platforms and more political dialogue takes place online, citizens lacking in digital literacy skills are at risk of becoming disenfranchised from the democratic process and excluded from public services.Footnote 41
Beyond the general responsibilities shared by all governments, the federal government has a particular role to play in devising a national, whole-of-government approach. This approach will foster a more competitive, productive and innovative economy and strengthen Canada's presence in the digital media sector by supporting development of the capacities, skills and abilities Canadians need to excel. Industry Canada, Heritage Canada, and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) have central roles to play as the three departments leading the development of a national digital strategy. To succeed, however, they will need the active cooperation and support of other federal departments and agencies, including those with regional development responsibilities.
The need for strong leadership and a whole-of-government approach is shown by the experience of other countries. A common feature of digital literacy strategies abroad is the clearly defined role of government in developing and implementing programs, as well as the designation of champions for issues such as inclusion, safety, education, and culture. It is also shown by previous experience in Canada. For example, the Canadian Strategy to Promote Safe, Wise and Responsible Internet Use was developed and implemented in 2001 by Industry Canada in partnership with the departments of Justice, Solicitor General, Canadian Heritage and the Canadian Association of Internet Providers. The five pillars outlined in the strategy were:
- supporting initiatives that educate and empower users;
- promoting effective industry self-regulation;
- strengthening the enforcement of laws in cyberspace;
- implementing hotlines and complaint reporting systems; and
- fostering consultation between the public and private sectors, and their counterparts in other countries.
Although the strategy was not renewed, Industry Canada has continued to play a leadership role in steering Canada's digital strategy and should continue to do so in the future. Currently, various components that would be considered part of a national plan for digital literacy fall under several federal government departments. Internet safety is mandated to Public Safety Canada; adult literacy and training falls under HRSDC. Canadian Heritage is responsible for developing the capacity of Canada's cultural industries, institutions, creators and communities (through Canada Online) and for providing a framework for both the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) and Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) (Broadcasting Policy and Programs Branch).
Components of digital literacy skills development are also spread across mandates and departments of provincial governments, for example, ministries or departments relating to education, training, colleges and universities, small businesses and innovation all have vested interests in this. If Canada is to develop an effective and comprehensive framework for digital literacy, these and other government stakeholders must be at the table.
As government moves more of its services into the digital realm, it provides the impetus and motivation to the community to use digital services. More e-government programs result in greater awareness of the benefits and risks inherent in digital media usage and create more opportunities for individuals to intrinsically increase their literacy levels.
A key element of any government-led digital media initiative must be increased transparency and open information policies. At the core of digital media communications is the flow and transfer of information, a process which inevitably drives greater transparency within government and encourages digital literacy within citizens. The US Federal Government has made significant investments in open information initiatives. Although there are significant differences concerning the legal status of public data in the US and Canada,Footnote 42 we can still learn a lot from American programs in this regard. The US Open Government ProgramFootnote 43 was launched in an effort to make government more transparent and accountable, and at the same time, has also acted as a catalyst for technological development within and outside of government.Footnote 44 Different departments across the US Federal Government such as the Departments of Education, Defense, Commerce, Justice and State contribute their data sets.Footnote 45 The nature of the data and the fact that it is distributed in digital formats means that it can only be utilized by digitally literate citizens. We believe that all levels of government in Canada should consider access to open data as a key principle in digital media programs.
Aside from the economic and social benefits of government digital media programs, the use of digital media as a public safety tool is becoming central to our communications systems. Citizens must be digitally literate in order to access public health and safety information quickly, confidently, and securely.
There has been increased recognition of the importance of media literacy and digital literacy in the policy agendas of regulators from around the world, with many appreciating the important role education and awareness play in alleviating more intrusive regulatory involvement in social policy matters. European regulators, for example, "have moved away from censorship as a form of protection and towards the provision of consumer advice and/or advocacy of media literacy."Footnote 46
In Canada, the CRTC, Canada's broadcast and telecommunications regulator, has promoted media literacy for over 15 years, starting with its 1996 public notice on TV violence where it stated: "The Commission encourages programmers and distributors to deepen their involvement in media literacy and public awareness…it will generally accept funding of third party organizations directly involved in media literacy as a tangible benefit at the time of transfers of ownership or control of broadcasting undertakings."Footnote 47
In the CRTC Three-Year Plan, 2008-2011, Chairman Konrad von Finckenstein reiterated this support when he stated that "informed Canadians participating in the communications system" was an expected outcome for CRTC priorities.Footnote 48
In addition, the CRTC is a member of the International Institute of Communications' International Media Literacy Research Forum, whose mission is to "improve understanding of the emerging issues, promote innovative methodologies and raise media literacy up the agenda of policy making bodies across the world."
Unlike communications' regulators in some countries, the CRTC does not have a legislative mandate to promote or support media literacy or digital literacy. That said, it has had, and hopefully will continue to have considerable influence in supporting and promoting media and digital education in Canada. It can do so through public notices that encourage media industries and the public to support media literacy and digital literacy; by continuing to recognize media literacy initiatives and organizations as legitimate recipients of tangible benefits from broadcasting transactions; and by supporting research regarding Canadians' digital media attitudes and use.
In addition to the CRTC, federal cultural institutions such as the CBC and the National Film Board could play a stronger role in supporting the development of digital literacy by helping spread awareness, providing information, supporting the development of digital content, and serving as incubators for innovations that complement and combine traditional forms of audio-visual programming with digital media.
Public Awareness and Community Programs
The benefits of any digital literacy initiative will not come to fruition unless the public recognizes and acknowledges the value of digital media resources. Just as infrastructure is not fully utilized without literacy, literacy programs won't be utilized without public awareness of their value and efficacy. To achieve this level of understanding, a public awareness campaign must accompany the roll out of digital literacy programs.
Since the biggest challenge of creating a digitally literate society lies in changing the attitudes and behaviours of those not engaged with technology, the most effective strategy would be a cross-media marketing campaign that would use the full spectrum of analog and digital media resources — from print to radio to television to blogs, Canadian news and entertainment websites, social media sites such Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube as well as other forms of social and viral media — in both official languages. Sponsored and coordinated by the federal government, this multi-faceted public awareness campaign should provide motivation for increasing digital literacy for all Canadians, regardless of age, geography, culture, socio-economic status or attitude.
One area in which there is a particular need is copyright. Many Canadians who want to be responsible digital citizens nonetheless lack an understanding of their legal rights and responsibilities in regards to their own creations and those of others. The occasion of the amendment of the Copyright Act creates an opportunity to inform citizens about this pervasive issue and, in so doing, influence attitudes and behaviours to the long-term benefit of all stakeholders.
Programs that provide all citizens with digital literacy skills through community-based initiatives are central in national digital strategies around the world. A first step in developing and implementing programs for digital literacy in Canada would be to explore similar initiatives and best practices here and around the world.
There's little doubt on the important role played by community networks and community-based organizations in "providing and maintaining both the technological and social infrastructures of ICT access, adoption, and use in Canada."Footnote 49 However, unlike schools, which provide the perfect environment for reaching and teaching Canadian youth, developing digital literacy programs for the general public — which includes parents, seniors, new Canadians and citizens who may be socio-economically, culturally, linguistically or geographically disadvantaged — poses more challenges.
These challenges demand a comprehensive response that incorporates both the public and private sectors.
The Community Access Program (CAP) administered by Industry Canada provides a model on how the federal government can work with provinces and territories to support community programs for digital literacy. Under this program federal, provincial, and territorial governments, community groups, social agencies, libraries, schools, volunteer groups, and the business community joined forces to create community hubs that provide computer support and training to adults and youth.Footnote 50
Examples of CAP programs include:
- Seniors On Seniors (SOS) Technology — a series of free workshops across Canada where seniors mentor other seniors in the use of new technology;
- JobStart in South Etobicoke Ontario, which provides a diverse range of individuals that includes youth, students, persons with disabilities, adults and newcomers to Canada with access to technology to help them find employment and develop job-seeking skills;
- The Sto:lo Adult Education Centre CAP Site in Chilliwack, that helps adult learners develop technology skills;
- The Purple Thistle Centre, a youth-run arts and activism centre in East Vancouver where youth acquire multi-media skills.
Integrating digital literacy skills training into existing CAP programs and sites will ensure that Canadians are not only able to more easily access and use digital technology, but are also able to use it in a manner that enhances their lives.
To facilitate meaningful change, the Federal government can provide nationally coordinated strategic support in conjunction with financial support. Strategic support will help provinces and communities identify needs and then provide the resources to fill them.
A number of avenues for strategic support — including for digital literacy — are outlined in a report published by the British Department for Culture, Media, and Sport. One of the main recommendations is the formation of a digital media-focused knowledge transfer network.Footnote 51 The knowledge transfer network would facilitate the exchange of information to help educational institutions learn from their peers across the country. It would also assist in making necessary connections between key players and resource providers.
Federal resource support can continue to flow through programs like CAP, but specific support for literacy initiatives must be incorporated into each program's goals and grant requirements. However, as we have argued throughout this paper, federal grant programs would be more effective in producing true social, cultural, and economic benefits if financial support is complimented with strategic support — and only if digital literacy skills are made a primary component on par with infrastructure deployment.Footnote 52 For example, the Government of Canada currently partners with Ministries of Education and TelecomPioneers to implement the Computers for Schools program. Computers for Schools has donated over one million refurbished computers to Canadian schools. A logical extension of this program would be to fund an educational component that helps students develop their digital literacy skills.
Public libraries are strategic partners in facilitating development of digital literacy skills in Canadian communities. Free, inclusive, and accessible, Canada's public libraries remain our society's informal learning system — the "people's university" — in the digital age. Interestingly, their relevance and usefulness have increased sharply in the past decade, with public use of in-person and digital services continuing to grow: two-thirds of Canadians report having and using a library membership card. Even very small communities where schools and banks have closed, maintain a library. Public libraries were the first public service in Canada to offer public access to computers. An integral part of the government's vision of ensuring connectivity for all, especially through the Community Access Program (CAP), libraries have long provided the bulk of public access to the Internet.
As libraries have always helped to match people of all ages and literacy levels with the ideas and resources they seek, media literacy in the digital environment has been a natural extension of this historic mission. Their particular niches have been basic instruction (Richmond Public Library) and orientation programs for parents and families (with the Media Awareness Network) to help parents understand the unmediated nature of the Internet and the challenges and options of parenting the "Net Generation". Public library partnerships in media literacy (Ottawa Public Library) have included immigrant organizations and youth groups such as Girl Guides of Canada. Public libraries are well positioned to work in such partnerships because of their high rates of public participation and trust and their cradle-to-grave mandate. Libraries have also provided or facilitated public programming on such high-profile issues as cyberbullying, copyright, social software and privacy to enable families and all who share responsibility for the well-being of youth to come together and examine practical solutions. In other words, public libraries' historic focus on literacy has readily extended to the broader literacies of the twenty-first century, in an environment of increasingly ubiquitous, powerful and inexpensive wireless access and participation.
The participation of these vibrant public institutions is fundamental to a national digital strategy.
In Montreal the Atwater Library's Digital Literacy Project partners with new media practitioners, new media businesses, schools, and local community service organizations to teach vulnerable Anglophone youth in west-downtown Montreal creative new media skills such as blogging, video production, web publishing, and graphic design.
Creating programs that help the general public develop digital literacy skills is an excellent opportunity for partnerships between the public, private, and not-for-profit sectors — especially those companies with a vested interest in digital media, such as broadcasters and Internet service providers. For example, the 'Race Online for 2012' program in the UK challenges governmental and non-governmental stakeholders to work together to help disadvantaged groups develop digital literacy skills. Partners — which include such well known companies as Google, Skype, and Microsoft — participate by making a 'partnership promise' of actions they will commit to, such as: helping a local community, donating money or equipment, doing something to get seniors online, training customers or employees. A similar partnership model could also be applied in Canada.
The private sector can also encourage and promote digital literacy through public competitions, scholarships, and internships.Footnote 53 Prizes have been found to directly generate innovation.Footnote 54 Competitions such as the one recently created by the video rental company Netflix spurred furious research investigation and collaborative dialogue within both computer science communities and the general public.Footnote 55 The Netflix Prize, which set out to improve the accuracy of predictions about how much someone is going to enjoy a movie, awarded $1 million to the team that devised the best movie recommendation algorithm. Such initiatives are an innovative and a productively disruptive method for industry to encourage broader engagement with digital media, as well as a compelling example of crowd-sourced research and development.
The implementation strategies outlined in the above sections are the large scale changes that must take place in order for Canada to regain its place as a leader in the digital world. Although all the strategies are feasible in the near future, we understand that such changes take time. In the next section are the items we believe must happen now in order to ensure we not only keep pace, but excel as a digital nation.
- 27 Previous to the Speech from the Throne, there have been discussions between industry leaders, government officials and academics at the Stratford Institute's Canada 3.0 Forum; as well the Government of Canada's forum Canada's Digital Economy: Moving Forward. (Back to reference 27)
- 28 Background Paper. Canada's Digital Economy: Moving Forward. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ecic-ceac.nsf/vwapj/background_paper.pdf/$file/background_paper.pdf. (Back to reference 28)
- 29 Ibid. (Back to reference 29)
- 30 Lankshear, C., Knobel, M. (2003). New Literacies: Changing Knowledge and Classroom Learning. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Knobel, M., and Lankshear, C. (eds.) (2007). A New Literacies Sampler and Digital Epistemologies. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. (Back to reference 30)
- 31 Dr. Phillip McRae Executive Staff Officer Alberta Teacher's Union. Phone interview. January 29, 2010. (Back to reference 31)
- 32 Collins, Allan, and Richard Halverson. "What May Be Lost and What May Be Gained." Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and Schooling in America (Technology, Education-Connections (Tec)) (Technology, Education-Connections the Tec Series). New York: Teachers College Press, (2009). pp. 109-111. (Back to reference 32)
- 33 Jenkins, H. (2010). Learning in a Participatory Culture: A Conversation About New Media and Education. http://henryjenkins.org/2010/02/_children_and_young_people.html (Back to reference 33)
- 34 Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum, p. 15. (Back to reference 34)
- 35 Ibid, p. 43 (Back to reference 35)
- 36 Government of Manitoba. A Continuum Model for Literacy with ICT Across the Curriculum. (2006), p. 8. (Back to reference 36)
- 37 Dr. Michael Hoechsmann, Professor McGill University. Phone interview. February 5, 2010 (Back to reference 37)
- 38 Ontario Public School Boards Association (2009). What if: Technology in the 21st Century Classroom. (Back to reference 38)
- 39 http://www.futurelab.ora.uk/ (Back to reference 39)
- 40 Summary of international reports, research, and case studies of digital literacy p. 24. (Back to reference 40)
- 41 Report of the Digital Britain Media Literacy Working Group Section 2.6 (Back to reference 41)
- 42 Eaves, David. "Open Data — USA vs. Canada." 16 Apr. 2010. http://eaves.ca/2009/10/08/open-data-us-vs-canada/ (Back to reference 42)
- 43 http://www.whitehouse.gov/Open (Back to reference 43)
- 44 See the innovations gallery: http://www.whitehouse.gov/open/innovations (Back to reference 44)
- 45 http://data.gov. See here for a comprehensive list of participating departments http://www.whitehouse.gov/open/around (Back to reference 45)
- 46 http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib310665/media_literacy_report.doc (p. 5). (Back to reference 46)
- 47 Public Notice CRTC 1996-36. Policy On Violence In Television Programming. (Back to reference 47)
- 48 http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/BACKGRND/plan2008.htm (Back to reference 48)
- 49 Executive Committee, Canadian Research Alliance for Community Innovation and Networking: Submission to the Telecommunications Policy Review Panel. November 3, 2005. http://www3.fis.utoronto.ca/iprp/cracin/TPRP_nov3_letter_signature.pdf (Back to reference 49)
- 50 Industry Canada. CAP Youth Initiatives Across Canada. Accessed April 26, 2010. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cap-pac.nsf/eng/00015.html#ns (Back to reference 50)
- 51 Creative Britain New Talents for the New Economy. (2008), p. 37 Section 3.15 (Back to reference 51)
- 52 Dr. Phillip McRae, Executive Staff Officer Alberta Teacher's Union. Phone interview. January 29, 2010. (Back to reference 52)
- 53 Australia's Digital Economy: Future Directions. (2009), p. 28. (Back to reference 53)
- 54 Dr. Phillip McRae, Executive Staff Officer Alberta Teacher's Union. Phone interview. January 29, 2010. (Back to reference 54)
- 55 http://www.netflixprize.com/ (Back to reference 55)
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