Activity Book 7: Secondary Level
Best suited for ages 16+
- Atomic Energy Math
- Investigation: Determining the Best Protection from UV
- Pesticides – What’s Bugging You?
- Tsunami Quiz
- Mapping Canada’s Climate
- Answer Key
Atomic Energy Math
National Research Council Canada
Complete the math problems using atomic numbers.
a. Cl + O + Ne = __________
b. H + Ac + K = ___________
c. K + N + I + Fe = __________
d. Sn + O + B = _____________
Complete the math problems using atomic mass (rounded to the nearest one).
e. H + He + Li = __________
f. O + F + Ne = __________
g. Si + S + Ar = ___________
h. Be + C + Al = ___________
Complete the math problem using atomic numbers.
i. ____ + _____ + ______ = 30
j. ____ + _____ + ______ = 40
k. ____ + _____ + ______ = 50
Investigation: Determining the Best Protection from UV
- UV meter(s)
- pencil and pad
- three (3) different types of fabric (e.g. cotton, synthetic, silk) in the same colour
- three (3) different colours of fabric of the same type and weight (e.g. black, white, and red cotton)
- three (3) pairs of sunglasses
- several leaves and/or types of shade (e.g., buildings, tree(s), umbrella)
- Choose a day when the UV Index is forecast to be 6 or greater.
- Identify variables and assign to groups, each with their own UV meter.
- Make predictions about which materials or shade give the best protection against UV.
- Put the samples in a random order.
- Take a UV reading with the UV meter in direct sunlight and record the value.
- Place each sample, one at a time, on the UV meter over the sensor. Ensure that the sensor is completely covered. Do not touch the sensor with your fingers. To sample types of shade, move the UV meter from direct sunlight to the designated shaded area before taking the reading.
- Wait a minute for the UV meter to adjust between samples.
- Calculate the percentage of UV transmitted through each type of fabric sunglasses or shade compared to the full sun reading.
UV transmitted (%) = (reading under sample ÷ full sun reading) x 100%
UV reduction (%) = 100% - UV transmitted
- Which fabrics give the best protection against UV?
- Which sunglasses give the best protection against UV?
- What type of leaf or shade gives the best protection against UV?
- Why is it important to change only one variable at a time?
- Why should the samples be in a random order?
- How would variable cloudiness affect the results?
The more of the sky that is blocked by trees and other objects, the lower the amount of UV.
In general, denim and polyester protect better than cotton; tight weaves, better than loose; dark colours, better than white; and heavy fabrics better than light. Sunglasses show approximately how well a pair of sunglasses protects your eyes from UV-B.
Accurate UV testing for sunglasses can only be conducted by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. UV-A is also harmful to the eye. When buying sunglasses, it's wise to check the label for the degree of protection from both types of UV.
Pesticides – What’s Bugging You?
Pesticides are substances used to prevent, destroy or repel pests. However sometimes pesticides can be very harmful to people and pets, especially if they are not used correctly. It's important to store pesticides properly and follow the instructions carefully.
Fill in the answers to the questions across and down.
1. If pesticides are not used properly you could get what?
3. Cabinets should be this when pesticides are stored in them?
5. What foods need to be washed to remove all traces of pesticides?
7. Pesticides can be harmful to people and these.
9. If you wear this you may not need as much bug spray.
2. Common name for a chemical that is harmful to your health.
4. Term used to describe chemicals that kill insects.
6. When you put this on, keep it away from your eyes and mouth.
8. When you come inside make sure you take off or wipe these.
10. What should you do if an area has been recently sprayed with pesticides?
Natural Resources Canada
Complete each question.
1. A tsunami is always triggered by an earthquake.
2. Where did Canada's worst tsunami disaster occur?
a. East Coast
b. West Coast
3. The word tsunami is Japanese for:
a. Giant tidal wave
b. Harbour wave
c. Small wave
d. Ocean current
4. A tsunami is always triggered by a natural disturbance.
5. The 1929 Grand Banks of Newfoundland tsunami was generated by:
a. An earthquake
d. A meteor impact
6. Historically, the most common trigger of tsunamis in Canada has been landslides.
7. A tsunami is related to tides. That is why it is called a giant tidal wave.
8. An earthquake in the ocean will automatically trigger a tsunami.
9. We can find geological evidence of past tsunamis in Canada.
10. The worst Canadian tsunami disaster occurred off the coast of Newfoundland.
11. Which part of Canada can be most affected by a tsunami?
12. A tsunami can be prevented.
13. It is possible to predict how far inland a tsunami wave will reach.
14. There are many signs that a tsunami will hit an area when it is approaching a coast.
15. Tsunamis are triggered by what?
b. Volcanic eruptions
c. Undersea landslides
d. All of the above
16. Tsunami waves usually reach heights of up to _______ metres.
17. Ships far out at sea can detect tsunamis easily and radio ahead with warnings.
18. Tsunamis travel radially outward from its epicentre.
19. Quickly advancing front waves of incoming tides, found in shallow estuaries, are called:
a. Tidal waves
b. Tidal bores
c. Sea surges
20. The sea tide draining away from shore is a sign of an approaching tsunami.
Mapping Canada’s Climate
To show how the climate varies across a country with the size and geography of Canada.
- Copies of the blank map of Canada
- The list of locations with climatic data
- An atlas
Method - part 1
Using the list, have your students write the average daily high temperature for July for each location beside the appropriate dot on the map. They may need to use the atlas to locate communities correctly.
As an optional exercise, you might ask your students to analyse this map to reinforce the differences between various parts of the country. To help you with the analysis, here are 4 common meteorological terms.
- Isopleth -- a general term describing a line that joins points of equal value.
- Isotherm -- a line which joins points of equal temperature.
- Isohyet -- a line which joins points of equal amounts of precipitation.
- Isobar -- a line which joins points of equal pressure - this is the type of line normally drawn by forecasters on a weather map.
To analyse the map using temperatures, have your students draw isotherms at 5° intervals. Again, an isotherm joins points of equal temperature. For example, if 1 community has an average daily high of 23°C and the neighbouring community has an average of 17°C, then you know that at some point between them, the average is 20°C.
Method - part 2
To analyse the map using the amount of snowfall take a second blank map, and still using the list, have your students plot the average annual snowfall for each community. They could analyse this map as well by drawing isohyets at intervals of 100 centimetres (cm), 200 cm, and so on. For instance if 1 community has an average annual snowfall of 139 cm and the next closest community has an average of 228 cm, then you know that somewhere between the 2 lies a point with 200 cm. When your map is complete, it will resemble a contour map, the kind atlases contain showing elevations.
When the maps are complete, have your students find the community that has, on average, the hottest summer days (Kamloops and Windsor) and the community that has the snowiest winters (Churchill Falls). Invite them to compare figures for different parts of the country and encourage them to discuss the roles that elevation, latitude, land forms, and large bodies of water may have on the climate. For example, Mayo in the Yukon has the same average high in July as does Lynn Lake in Manitoba. Halifax, Nova Scotia, gets twice as much snow on average as Baker Lake in the Northwest Territories.
Tips: It will be easiest to begin with the 100 cm isohyet in the north and then work southward.
|Province/Territory||Community||Average High Temperature July (°C)||Average Annual Snowfall (cm)|
|Northwest Territories||Fort Smith||23||154|
|Fort St. John||22||198|
|Ontario||Big Trout Lake||21||233|
|Sault Ste Marie||24||316|
|Prince Edward Island||Charlottetown||23||339|
|Happy Valley-Goose Bay||21||464|
|Port Aux Basques||16||316|
Atomic Energy Math
a - 35, b - 109, c- 105, d - 63, e - 12, f - 55, g - 100, h - 48. Possible answers for i - Be + Mg + Si, j - B + P + Ca, k - Mn + Ne + P
Pesticides - What's Bugging You?
5. FRU ITS & VEGETABLES
9. LIGHT COLOURS
6. INSECT REPELLENT
10. STAY AWAY
1. b) False - A tsunami can be triggered by a landslide, earthquake, submarine landslide, meteorite impact, man-man explosion or even a structure failure such as a dam.
2. a) East Coast
3. b) Harbour Wave
4. b) False - Sometimes a tsunami can be triggered by a man-made explosion or a structure failure such as a dam collapse.
5. c) Landslide
6. a) True
7. b) False - A tsunami is not related to tides. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull from the moon.
8. b) False - The earthquake has to be strong enough to create a vertical movement in the water column.
9. a) True
10. a) True
11. d) Coasts
12. b) False - It is impossible to prevent an earthquake, meteorite impact or submarine landslide from causing a tsunami to form. However, we can mitigate or prevent the damage caused by tsunamis by relocating cities and building structures away from the coast.
13. a) True
14. b) False - The wave is not easily detected at sea. At the coast, a rapid and unexpected recession of water levels below the expected low tide can occur minutes before the shoreline is struck by a tsunami, and can be the only warning sign along coastlines that are located too far from the earthquake epicentre to have felt the shaking.
15. d) All of the Above
16. c) 30
17. b) False - The waves generated close to the epicentre are relatively small as the motion is absorbed through the entire depth of the water column and are not easily detected. In deep water the wavelength is great and amplitude is subdued.
18. a) True
19. b) Tidal Bores
20. a) True
Mapping Canada's Climate
Sample Snowfall isohyets
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