Scientific publications—2019

2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 Archived

Each year, CRC's researchers author a number of publications communicating successes in advanced wireless telecommunications R&D. Integral to their work is sharing the results with others.

Here you will find abstracts and links to papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals or books or presented at conference proceedings.

If you experience issues accessing the full report or the website, please contact us. Other formats of documents are also available upon request.


Research publications—2019
Title Authors
Intelligent sensing for automated spectrum assignment

Year: 2019

Abstract: As the number of wireless devices explodes in the lead up to the release of 5G communications technology, it is expected that the demands for usage of the wireless spectrum will increase to the point where current spectrum allocation methods will no longer be sufficient. Dynamic Spectrum Management (DSM) uses cognitive radio methods to sense the current state of spectrum usage by other devices, and then makes use of that data to allocate spectrum in time and space to best meet users communication requirements in near real time. Our previous work on a Spectrum Environment Awareness (SEA) sensor system suggests that static tasking of the large number of sensors required for 5G would consume large amounts of storage and communications resources. Intelligent and collaborative tasking of sensors would reduce both these overheads as well as the burden on data analysis. In this paper, we describe an intelligent distributed collaborative sensing system with centralized control for use in DSM-based automated spectrum assignment. We use simulation results to estimate the amount of sensor reading duplication in such a system. These results provide direction on how intelligent sensing systems can optimize the tasking of sensors in this domain. © 2019 IEEE.

Source title: IEEE International Symposium on Robotic and Sensors Environments, ROSE 2019 - Proceedings

DOI: 10.1109/ROSE.2019.8790408

Series Number: 19 June 2019

Link: Intelligent sensing for automated spectrum assignment

Kidston D., Wang M.
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting Special Issue on: 5G for Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting

Year: 2019

Abstract: [No abstract available]

Source title: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting

DOI: 10.1109/TBC.2019.2914866

Series Number: Volume 8, Issue 12

Link: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting Special Issue on: 5G for Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting

Gomez-Barquero D., Li W., Fuentes M., Xiong J., Araniti G., Akamine C., Wang J.
Performance analysis of all modulation and code combinations in ATSC 3.0 physical layer protocol

Year: 2019

Abstract: This paper presents the advanced television systems committee (ATSC) 3.0 physical layer system performances with different modulation and channel coding combinations. Numerous computer simulations, laboratory tests, and field trials are conducted under additive white Gaussian noise, RC20, and RL20 channels. Analysis of the results shows that the measured values in laboratory and field are less than 1 dB away from computer simulation results. This confirms that the ATSC 3.0 physical layer is capable of providing services ranging from ultra-robust reception (negative SNR operation with QPSK and 2/15 low density parity check (LDPC) code) to very high-throughput (over 50 Mb/s with 4096-non-uniform constellation and 13/15 LDPC code) in real field environments. © 1963-12012 IEEE.

Source title: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting

DOI: 10.1109/TBC.2018.2871372

Series Number: Volume 65, issue 2

Link: Performance analysis of all modulation and code combinations in ATSC 3.0 physical layer protocol

Park S.-I., Lee J.-Y., Kwon S., Lim B.-M., Ahn S., Kim H.M., Jeon S., Lee J., Simon M., Aitken M., Gage K., Wu Y., Zhang L., Li W., Kim J.
Hierarchical meta-learning models with deep neural networks for spectrum assignment

Year: 2019

Abstract: In this paper, we consider a data-driven approach and apply machine learning methods to facilitate frequency assignment. Specifically, an hierarchical meta-learning architecture, which harness the predictive capability of both statistical and deep learning approaches, is proposed to predict a diverse range of spectrum usage patterns. Using spectrum measurement, network simulations are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture. It is shown that the hierarchical meta-learning models with deep recurrent neural networks have great potential for predicting spectrum usage patterns to facilitate multi-tier spectrum assignment. © 2019 IEEE.

Source title: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC Workshops 2019 - Proceedings

DOI: 10.1109/ICCW.2019.8756707

Series Number: 19 May 2019

Link: Hierarchical meta-learning models with deep neural networks for spectrum assignment

Rutagemwa H., Baddour K.E., Rong B.
Joint relay selection and load balancing using D2D communications for 5G HetNet MEC

Year: 2019

Abstract: Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) has seen its fast growth in the past years by taking advantage of the computation capabilities in edge facilities. In the meantime, integrating Device-to-Device (D2D) communications into Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) emerges as a promising solution to improve system performance. For instance, D2D can be used to offload traffic from heavily-loaded cells to light-loaded small cells. In this paper, we develop a joint relay selection scheme, in which a cellular operator decides whether users can assist each other to bridge their traffic to small cell MEC application servers. Our proposed scheme has a dynamic load balancing function based on D2D communications using the Kuhn-Munkres (K-M). Simulation results show that our design can significantly increase the number of admitted users while achieving high load balancing fairness index among small cells. © 2019 IEEE.

Source title: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC Workshops 2019 - Proceedings

DOI: 10.1109/ICCW.2019.8756853

Series Number: 19 May 2019

Link: Joint relay selection and load balancing using D2D communications for 5G HetNet MEC

Omran A., Sboui L., Rong B., Rutagemwa H., Kadoch M.
IoT-enabled machine learning for an algorithmic spectrum decision process

Year: 2019

Abstract: This paper investigates a data centric approach for future regulatory spectrum management (SM). Spectrum sensing data are collected by a spectrum environment awareness system built on a cloud-based service of Internet of Things. The data are used to characterize channel behaviors and establish a sharing predictor model which enables a set of efficient machine learning algorithms for automated spectrum sharing decision making. The performance of the decision process is evaluated, illustrating the feasibility and potential of this novel SM approach. © 2014 IEEE.

Source title: IEEE Internet of Things Journal

DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2018.2883490

Series Number: Volume 6, issue 2

Link: IoT-enabled machine learning for an algorithmic spectrum decision process

Li L., Ghasemi A.
Layered-division-multiplexing for high spectrum efficiency and service flexibility in next generation ATSC 3.0 broadcast system

Year: 2019

Abstract: LDM, a non-orthogonal multiplexing technology, is one of the main innovations in ATSC 3.0, a next generation terrestrial TV broadcast system. This article gives a general overview of the LDM technology, its current applications in the ATSC 3.0 system, and its cost in terms of the required additional complexity. The transmission capacity benefit offered by LDM is explained by theoretical analysis and demonstrated by simulation results. An efficient implementation scheme is described with less than 15 percent complexity increase. New service coverage paradigms enabled by LDM are presented. Finally, more future innovative applications of LDM, along with their benefits and challenges, are introduced. These include using LDM for wireless in-band backhaul, combining LDM with scalable video coding, and the application of LDM in other future broadcasting and 4G/5G broadband systems. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

Source title: IEEE Wireless Communications

DOI: 10.1109/MWC.2018.1800092

Series Number: Volume 26, issue 2

Link: Layered-division-multiplexing for high spectrum efficiency and service flexibility in next generation ATSC 3.0 broadcast system

Zhang L., Wu Y., Li W., Rong B., Salehian K., Lafleche S., Wang X., Park S.I., Kim H.M., Lee J.-Y., Hur N., Angueira P., Montalban J.
Interlaboratory Millimeter-Wave Channel Sounder Verification

Year: 2019

Abstract: The channel sounder verification program within the National Institute of Standards and Technology-coordinated 5G mmWave Channel Model Alliance aims to place channel sounders on a sound metrological foundation by using well-established laboratory verification methods coupled with modern waveform metrology tools. To provide comparison-to-reference verification of channel sounder hardware measurements, we begin by measuring deterministic conducted channels, established using a channel sounder verification artifact and temperature control unit. This artifact produces multiple stable and repeatable environments to compare the channel sounders' hardware performance to a reference measurement provided by a vector network analyzer. The reference vector network analyzer measurements have an uncertainty analysis including systematic and random components to verify the channel sounder performance. Due to its portable nature, this artifact has potential use in a robin-robin testing between laboratories. General insights and common problems are provided using measurements of the verification box from a one channel sounder in the Alliance. © 2019 European Association on Antennas and Propagation.

Source title: 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2019

Series Number: 19 March, 2019

Link: Interlaboratory Millimeter-Wave Channel Sounder Verification

Quimby J., Michelson D.G., Bennai M., Remley K.A., Kast J., Weiss A.
Coverage Study of ATSC 3.0 under Strong Co-Channel Interference Environments

Year: 2019

Abstract: In addition to the traditional TDM/FDM, the advanced television systems committee (ATSC) 3.0 next generation digital TV standard has adopted state-of-the-art coding and modulation, as well as the new layered division multiplexing (LDM) technology. The ATSC 3.0 system is able to provide higher data throughput, more robust reception, better spectrum efficiency, and flexible service combinations in one RF channel with different robustness and reception conditions. Due to the adoption of a two-layer LDM, the coverage for ATSC 3.0 is very different from the legacy one-transmitter-one-coverage ATSC 1.0 system. With the new enabling technologies, the ATSC 3.0 can greatly increase the coverage/service areas, reduce the distance between co-channel assignments, and introduce local program insertion and targeted advertisement. This paper addresses the ATSC 3.0 coverage and co-channel interference issues, by using the two-layer LDM technology with different operating parameters. Simulations demonstrate that, similar to the 4G long term evolution, the ATSC 3.0 co-channel assignment could be reduced to two times the service coverage radius. This means an improvement of the spectrum efficiency by up to four times in comparison with today's system. It is also proved through simulations that significant TV program gains can be obtained with this new system. The deployment of single frequency networks can further improve the coverage and reduce the interference. © 1963-12012 IEEE.

Source title: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting

DOI: 10.1109/TBC.2018.2832446

Series Number: Volume 65, issue 2

Link: Coverage Study of ATSC 3.0 under Strong Co-Channel Interference Environments

Li W., Wu Y., Lafleche S., Salehian K., Zhang L., Florea A., Park S.-I., Lee J.-Y., Kim H.-M., Hur N., Regueiro C., Montalban J., Angueira P.
Using Layered-Division-Multiplexing to Deliver Multi-Layer Mobile Services in ATSC 3.0

Year: 2019

Abstract: Layered-division-multiplexing (LDM) is a physical-layer non-orthogonal multiplexing technology, which has been accepted as a baseline technology by the next generation terrestrial digital TV (DTV) broadcasting standard, advanced television systems committee (ATSC) 3.0. The typical scenario for an LDM-based ATSC 3.0 system is to deliver a robust high-definition TV (HDTV) service in the higher-power core-layer (CL) for mobile reception and a 4k ultra high definition TV or multiple enhanced full HDTV (1080p) services in the lower-power enhanced layer (EL) for fixed reception. So far, the capability of using the EL of an LDM system to deliver mobile services has not been investigated and well-understood. In this paper, we investigate the potential of using both layers of an LDM-based ATSC 3.0 system to delivery multiple mobile services that target different types of mobile devices. The mobile performance of the LDM system is then compared to its time-division-multiplexing and frequency-division-multiplexing counterparts, which will reveal the application scenarios for which using LDM would provide performance advantages. In addition, the availability of high-throughput fixed services carried in the LDM-EL to mobile receivers is also investigated by computer simulations. An advanced detection algorithm is proposed based on the LDM-CL inter-carrier-interference cancellation, which is shown to provide significantly better mobile performance. Finally, we show by simulation that using receive antenna diversity combining techniques can significantly improve the service detection performance of LDM mobile receivers, especially for services carried in the LDM EL. © 1963-12012 IEEE.

Source title: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting

DOI: 10.1109/TBC.2018.2855652

Series Number: Volume 65, issue 2

Link: Using Layered-Division-Multiplexing to Deliver Multi-Layer Mobile Services in ATSC 3.0

Zhang L., Li W., Wu Y., Salehian K., Lafleche S., Hong Z., Park S.-I., Kim H.M., Lee J.-Y., Hur N., Wang X., Angueira P., Montalban J.
Data-driven prediction of cellular networks coverage: An interpretable machine-learning model

Year: 2019

Abstract: Understanding the extent and quality of wireless coverage provided by cellular networks is a key challenge for service providers as well as spectrum regulators. Conventionally, service providers build coverage maps by running expensive drive-test campaigns in a controlled fashion and then spatially interpolating the measurements. With the advent of crowd-sourcing applications providing performance data of mobile users however, there is potential to directly characterize the coverage using large amounts of user-reported data.In this paper, we fuse crowd-sourced measurements from users of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular systems with other information about user's context and radio access network (RAN) configuration to build a predictive model of wireless coverage. We compare the proposed model's predictions against a conventional empirical model as well as values obtained by spatial interpolation of drive-test measurements; indicating the superior accuracy of our data-driven model. We further interpret the model's predictions using the recently-introduced Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) framework, allowing us to quantify each feature's contribution to model output. © 2018 IEEE.

Source title: 2018 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing, GlobalSIP 2018 - Proceedings

DOI: 10.1109/GlobalSIP.2018.8646338

Series Number: 20 February 2019

Link: Data-driven prediction of cellular networks coverage: An interpretable machine-learning model

Ghasemi A.
Scatterer Surface Design for Wave Scattering Application

Year: 2018

Abstract: In this paper, radio wave scattering is considered and an optimal scatterer surface is realized. For this purpose, an ultrawideband and high-efficiency polarization converter unit cell is proposed. Here, the proposed polarization converter unit cell and its mirror are combined to provide 180° phase difference for scattering purposes. The desired combination of unit cells which produces uniform scattering pattern and maximum wave attenuation achieved employing group search optimization (GSO) algorithm. For the problem at hand, the GSO optimization algorithm is presented in bilevel format including master and slave levels. Simulation and experimental results showed that the 10 dB bandwidth of normalized radar cross section (RCS) reduction is achieved in ultrawideband ranging from 5.5 to 20.51 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 115%, assuring a favorable performance of the proposed method. In addition, a wide-angle bistatic RCS reduction over a wide frequency band is attained. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Source title: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2883569

Series Number: Volume 67, issue 2

Link: Scatterer Surface Design for Wave Scattering Application

Samadi F., Akbari M., Chaharmir M.R., Sebak A.
Predictive Modeling of LTE User Throughput Via Crowd-Sourced Mobile Spectrum Data

Year: 2018

Abstract: In this paper, crowd-sourced mobile speed-test measurements from users of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular networks are fused with other information about user's context and radio access network (RAN) deployment to train a data-driven predictive model of LTE download and upload throughputs. The predictive model is built using a state-of-the-art gradient boosted decision tree algorithm capable of capturing the complex relationships among the various attributes of our dataset. Our results indicate that leveraging both contextual and RAN deployment information improves the prediction accuracy between 14 - 19%, when compared to a baseline relying solely on the LTE signal metrics such as received power and signal-to-noise-ratio. In order to interpret the predictions produced by the model, we further employ a recently-introduced framework using Shapley values from game theory. Results highlight the fundamental variables affecting the model's prediction of user throughput while also quantifying the level of each variable's contribution, thereby offering insights to network operators as well as end-users on how they might improve their performance in practice. © 2018 IEEE.

Source title: 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DySPAN 2018

DOI: 10.1109/DySPAN.2018.8610464

Series Number: 11 January 2019

Link: Predictive Modeling of LTE User Throughput Via Crowd-Sourced Mobile Spectrum Data

Ghasemi A.
High efficient linear polariser using FSS structure

Year: 2019

Abstract: A linear polarisation converter surface with broadband and high-efficiency properties is proposed. The proposed frequency selective surface (FSS) polariser consists of two-corner-cut diagonal rectangular printed on a substrate backed by a pinwheel loop shape ground. The combination of two-corner-cut diagonal rectangular patch and pinwheel loop shape ground contributes to bandwidth expansion. Numerical results indicate that the FSS structure is capable of converting x or y polarised incident wave to the relevant cross-polarised wave in a wide frequency range from 7.5 to 24.5 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 106% for -10 dB r xy reflection amplitude. In addition, the r yy and r xy reflection coefficients of the proposed unit-cell present slight variation for different incident angles up to 40°, which verifies the applicability of the proposed FSS structure in a practical environment. For experimental validation, a prototype of the FSS structure is fabricated and reflection parameters of the proposed structure are measured which agree well with corresponding simulations. Due to the minimal dependency on the angle of incidence and non-uniform ground plane the proposed polarisation converter unit-cell can be a possible choice for secure building applications. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Source title: IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation

DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2018.5407

Series Number: Volume 13, issue 1

Link: High efficient linear polariser using FSS structure

Samadi F., Akbari M., Zarbakhsh S., Chaharmir R., Sebak A.
Impact of Header Compression on Tactical Networks

Year: 2019

Abstract: Traditional tactical networks are well known for having error-prone and limited capacity links. A common technique for improving throughput and increasing spectrum efficiency over such low bandwidth links is the use of Header Compression (HC). Removing static protocol entries and synchronizing state information between a sender and receiver reduces per-packet overhead for long lived communication flows. Previous work in header compression such as the IETF's Robust Header Compression (ROHC) standard focused on single-hop unicast traffic. This is not closely aligned with tactical networks, such as NATO's Narrowband Wave Form (NBWF), which have a more challenging multi-hop multi-cast environment and a routing layer that is already highly optimized. In this work, we investigate performance gains from header compression in tactical networks. A novel multi-hop multi-cast header compression (MMHC) scheme is evaluated in a simulated tactical scenario. The use of MMHC increased the packet delivery success rate and decreased packet latency. The simulations also confirmed the significant impact to performance caused by fragmentation due to the small frame sizes in tactical networks. © 2018 IEEE.

Source title: Proceedings - IEEE Military Communications Conference MILCOM

DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.2018.8599776

Series Number: Volume 2019-October, 2 January 2019

Link: Impact of Header Compression on Tactical Networks

Kidston D., Hugg P.
Emulation of Large-Scale LTE Networks in NS-3 and CORE: A Distributed Approach

Year: 2019

Abstract: Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a promising technology to be used for Mission-Critical Networks (MCNs); emulating such technology is important to test different scenarios before real deployment. However, using the Network Simulator (NS-3) to simulate large-scale LTE networks has proven to be very time consuming. Hence, there is a need to speed up such simulations in order to facilitate real-time emulation and interaction of large-scale LTE networks with external systems. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enable the emulation of large-scale LTE networks by employing distributed topologies along with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocol. The proposed approach is integrated with the Common Open Research Emulator (CORE) to enable exchange of real-time traffic between the simulated LTE network and Hardware-In-the Loop (HIL). Performance studies were carried out to evaluate the scaling performance of emulated LTE networks in real time. The results show that distributed implementation succeeds in running scenarios within the wall-clock time. © 2018 IEEE.

Source title: Proceedings - IEEE Military Communications Conference MILCOM

DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.2018.8599762

Series Number: Volume 2019-October, 2 January 2019

Link: Emulation of Large-Scale LTE Networks in NS-3 and CORE: A Distributed Approach

Sabbah A., Jarwan A., Al-Shiab I., Ibnkahla M., Wang M.
Frequency Correlation Modelling for Tactical VHF Channels in Mountainous Terrain

Year: 2019

Abstract: This paper considers statistical modelling of wideband propagation characteristics in the frequency domain based on the channel's complex frequency correlation function (FCF). Using a large set of wireless propagation measurements taken at 312 MHz in mountainous environments, an assessment of the accuracy with which several FCFs can model tactical VHF propagation scenarios is conducted. It is shown that, while the selected models can do a reasonable job of capturing the channel's frequency dynamics under a smooth decay, rapid oscillations in the FCF believed to arise from clustering of multipath reflections are more difficult to track. As would be expected, models with more free parameters generally provide a superior fit to the measured frequency correlations. To assist with the design and simulation of robust waveforms for these highly time-dispersive environments, coherence bandwidth statistics and model parameter distributions for a simple FCF are reported based on our measurements in three different regions. © 2018 IEEE.

Source title: Proceedings - IEEE Military Communications Conference MILCOM

DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.2018.8599808

Series Number: Volume 2019-October, 2 January 2019

Link: Frequency Correlation Modelling for Tactical VHF Channels in Mountainous Terrain

Pugh J., Alkadamani M., Brown C., Jodalen V.
A Method for Improving Imputation and Prediction Accuracy of Highly Seasonal Univariate Data with Large Periods of Missingness

Year: 2019

Abstract: Imputation of missing data in datasets with high seasonality plays an important role in data analysis and prediction. Failure to appropriately account for missing data may lead to erroneous findings, false conclusions, and inaccurate predictions. The essence of a good imputation method is its missingness-recovery-ability, i.e., the ability to deal with large periods of missing data in the dataset and the ability to extract the right characteristics (e.g., seasonality pattern) buried under the dataset to be analyzed. Univariate imputation is usually incapable of providing a reasonable imputation for a variable when periods of missing values are large. On the other hand, the default multivariate imputation approach cannot provide an accurate imputation for a variable when missing values of other correlated variables used for imputation occur at exactly the same time intervals. To deal with these drawbacks and to provide feasible imputations in such scenarios, we propose a novel method that converts a single variable into a multivariate form by exploiting the high seasonality and random missingness of this variable. After this conversion, multivariate imputation can then be applied. We then test the proposed method on an LTE spectrum dataset for imputing a single variable, such as the average cell throughput. We compare the performance of our proposed method with Kalman filtering and default method for multivariate imputation. The performance evaluation results clearly show that the proposed method significantly outperforms Kalman filtering and default method in terms of imputation and prediction accuracy. © 2019 Aizaz Chaudhry et al.

Source title: Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing

DOI: 10.1155/2019/4039758

Series Number: Volume 2019

Link: A Method for Improving Imputation and Prediction Accuracy of Highly Seasonal Univariate Data with Large Periods of Missingness

Chaudhry A., Li W., Basri A., Patenaude F.
Technological and regulatory developments for electromagnetic transmission into the millimeter wave and terahertz wave spectrum

Year: 2019

Abstract: Electromagnetic transmission into the millimeter wave (mmWave) and terahertz wave (THzWave) spectrum is undergoing many developments. This paper addresses technological and regulatory developments of electromagnetic transmission into the frequency range 86–3000 GHz relevant to commercial communication systems and networks. The paper reviews technological advancements based on transmission trials, propagation measurements, and semiconductor electronics and circuit component developments. It also reviews technology trends and addresses the suitability of current enabling technologies for the development of mmWave and THzWave communication systems such as 6G and beyond. In addition, this paper presents steps taken by spectrum regulators and standardization bodies (e.g., ITU-R, FCC, IEEE) to further the identification and allocation of frequency bands for future use by radiocommunication services. Technology maturity has caused spectrum regulators to focus on commercial service expansion into certain frequency bands. The ITU-R is currently studying sharing and compatibility between the land-mobile, fixed and passive services applications in 275–450 GHz. The upcoming ITU-R World Radio Conference 2019 is to decide on the expansion of the land mobile and fixed services applications into 275–450 GHz. The full exploitation of the mmWave/THzWave spectrum by commercial communication systems awaits the development of innovative technologies to compensate for atmospheric attenuation and propagation losses, enhance mobility, and design and implement high-performance energy-and-cost-efficient compact devices. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

Source title: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02683-7_36

Series Number: Volume 2019

Link: Technological and regulatory developments for electromagnetic transmission into the millimeter wave and terahertz wave spectrum

Hanna S.
A Low Complexity Decoding Scheme for Raptor-Like LDPC Codes

Year: 2019

Abstract: Recently, a new structure of low density parity check (LDPC) code named raptor-like LDPC code has attracted much attention. It has better performance at low code rate. In this paper, a novel decoding scheme for raptor-like LDPC code is proposed. First, the Gaussian approximation density evolution (GADE) algorithm is used to track and analyze the message transmission during the decoding process. It is found that certain log likelihood ratio (LLR) messages can be approximated by ``zero'' setting in the early iteration of raptor-like LDPC decoding. In other words, some column and row operations could be eliminated without compromise the performance. Next, we propose a new decoding scheme, which can skip unnecessary column and row operations. In comparison with the traditional belief propagation (BP)-based LDPC decoding scheme, the proposed scheme can reduce the decoding complexity. Additionally, a new algorithm is developed to facilitate the selection of the early iteration number. With this novel design, the proposed decoding scheme performs almost the same as the traditional BP-based scheme. To proof the concept, the raptor-like LDPC codes in the ATSC3.0 digital TV system are used to evaluate the proposed scheme, in comparison with the traditional BP-based schemes, i.e., sum-product algorithm (SPA), offset min-sum algorithm (OMSA), and normalized min-sum algorithm (NMSA). The simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme can reduce the decoding complexity without sacrifice in performance for all SPA, OMSA, and NMSA methods. About 10% complexity reduction can be achieved. This will reduce the buttery consumption for Internet of Things (IoT) and handheld devices. IEEE

Source title: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting

DOI: 10.1109/TBC.2019.2921670

Series Number: Volume 881

Link: A Low Complexity Decoding Scheme for Raptor-Like LDPC Codes

Xu Y., Zhang G., Ju H., He D., Sun J., Wu Y., Zhang W.
Date modified: