Trademarks Examination Manual

This manual is a reference guide for trademark applicants and agents on how examiners will interpret and apply the legislation.

Table of Contents

I Introduction
  1. General Information
II Examination of the Application as to Form
  1. Pre-examination
  2. Request for Early Examination
  3. Formal Requirements — Section 30
  4. Types of Applications — Section 16, Paragraphs 41(1)(c) and 30(b) to (f)
  5. Contents Common to All Applications
    1. Identity of the Applicant
    2. Address of the Applicant — Paragraph 30(g)
    3. Identification and Description of the Mark - Paragraph 30(h), and Rule 24
    4. Description of Specific Goods or Services in Ordinary Commercial Terms — Paragraph 30(a)
    5. Naming Date of First Use or Making Known — Paragraphs 30(b) or (c)
    6. Trademark Agents and Representatives for Service
    7. Applicant's Statement of Claim of Entitlement — Paragraph 30(i)
    8. Signature of Applicant
  6. Content Appearing in Some Applications
    1. Predecessor in Title — Paragraphs 30(b), (c) and (d)
    2. Drawings — Paragraph 30(h) and Rules 27(1) and 28
    3. Specimens — Rule 29(c)
    4. Nice Classification
  7. Contents of Specific Applications
    1. Applications Based on Use in Canada — Subsection 16(1) and Paragraph 30(b)
    2. Applications Based on Making Known in Canada — Section 5, Subsection 16(1), Paragraph 30(c)
    3. Applications Based on Application or Registration in or for a Union Country and Use Abroad — Subsection 16(2) and Paragraph 30(d)
    4. Applications Based on Proposed Use in Canada — Subsection 16(3), Paragraph 30(e), Subsection 40(2)
    5. Applications for Certification Marks — Sections 23, 24 and 25 and Paragraph 30(f)
    6. Applications to Extend Statement of Goods or Services — Paragraph 41(1)(c) and subsection 41(2)
III Search / Confusion
  1. Purpose of the Search
  2. Definition of Confusion — Subsection 6(2)
    1. Surrounding Circumstances — Subsection 6(5)
  3. Test of Confusion
    1. Doubt as to Confusion
  4. Searching
  5. Discovering a Confusing Mark
    1. Confusion with a Registered Mark — Paragraph 12(1)(d)
    2. Associated Marks — Section 15
    3. Confusion with Certification Mark
    4. Confusion with Newfoundland Registrations
  6. Confusion with Co-pending Applications
    1. Persons Entitled to Registration
    2. Notification of Applicants
    3. Same Entitlement Date
    4. Abandoned Applications
IV Examination of the Mark
  1. Purpose of Examination
  2. Definition of Trademark
  3. Distinguishing Guises and Three-dimensional Marks
    1. Two-dimensional Marks Applied To Three-dimensional Objects
    2. Distinguishing Guises
    3. Colour
    4. Goods
    5. Shaping of Goods or Their Containers
    6. Mode of Wrapping or Packaging Goods
    7. Evidence of Acquired Distinctiveness
    8. Functionality
    9. Perspectives
  4. Trademark Consisting of a Sound
    1. Electronic Recording of Sound
  5. Paragraph 12(1)(a) — Names and Surnames
    1. Definition of "Word"
    2. Definition of Name or Surname
    3. Merely a Name or a Surname
    4. Meaning of "Primarily"
    5. Test to Determine Primary Meaning
    6. Given Name and Surname
    7. Surnames with "& Sons", "Brothers", "Inc.", "Co.", etc.
    8. Compound Surnames
    9. Pluralized Surnames
    10. Surnames in the Possessive Form
    11. Surnames That Include Accents or Other Characters
    12. Reference Sources — Paragraph 12(1)(a)
    13. Historical Significance
  6. Paragraph 12(1)(b) — Clearly Descriptive or Deceptively Misdescriptive
    1. Definition
    2. Examination under Paragraph 12(1)(b)
    3. Test for Clear Descriptiveness
    4. Depicted, Written or Sounded
    5. Misdescriptiveness
    6. Deceptively Misdescriptive
    7. In the English or French Languages
    8. Character or Quality
    9. Embellishment of Descriptive Words
    10. Suggestive Trademarks
    11. Conditions of Production
    12. Persons Employed in the Production
    13. Place of Origin
    14. Pharmaceuticals
    15. Abbreviations, Acronyms or Initials
    16. Descriptiveness and Terms Such as .com, .ca, .fr, .uk and .us
    17. Hashtag (#)
  7. Paragraph 12(1)(c) — Name of Goods or Services
    1. Reasons for Paragraph 12(1)(c)
    2. Interpreting and Applying Provisions
  8. Information from Government Departments — Paragraphs 12(1)(b) and (c) and 30(i)
    1. Paragraph 30(i) and Goods and Services
    2. Precious Metals
    3. List of Grade Names and Agricultural Product Legends
  9. Paragraph 12(1)(d) — Confusion
  10. Paragraph 12(1)(e) — Prohibited Marks
    1. Paragraphs 9(1)(a), (b) and (c)
    2. Paragraph 9(1)(d)
    3. Paragraph 9(1)(e)
    4. Paragraphs 9(1)(f), (g), (g.1) and (h)
    5. Paragraphs 9(1)(i) and 9(1)(i.1)
    6. Paragraph 9(1)(j)
    7. Paragraph 9(1)(k)
    8. Paragraph 9(1)(l)
    9. Paragraph 9(1)(m)
    10. Paragraph 9(1)(n)
    11. Paragraph 9(1)(o)
    12. Section 10
    13. Sections 9 and 10 — Informing the Applicant
    14. Paragraph 9(2)(a) — Consent for Use of Prohibited Marks
    15. Paragraph 12(1)(f) and Section 10.1 — Plant Variety Denominations
    16. Paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h) — Protected Geographical Indications for Wines or Spirits
    17. Paragraph 12(1)(i) — Olympic and Paralympic Marks Act
  11. Disclaimers — Section 35
  12. Subsection 12(2) — Distinctiveness
    1. General
    2. Evidence
    3. Determination of Distinctiveness — Subsection 12(2)
  13. Section 14 — Not Without Distinctive Character
    1. Comparison of Subsection 12(2) and Section 14
    2. Data Required on Affidavits
    3. Further Notes on Section 14
  14. Voluntary Restrictions as to Territory
V Examiners' Reports
  1. Objection to Registration — Subsection 37(2)
  2. First Actions
  3. Goods or Services
  4. Paragraph 12(1)(a)
  5. Paragraph 12(1)(b)
  6. Paragraph 12(1)(c)
  7. Paragraph 12(1)(d)
  8. Paragraph 12(1)(e)
    1. Paragraph 12(1)(f)
    2. Paragraphs 12(1)(g) and (h)
  9. Dates of Entitlement
  10. Multiple Claims
  11. Second and Third Actions
    1. Telephone Amendments
    2. Approval and Advertisement
  12. Third and Subsequent Actions
    1. Evidence Requirements
    2. Deletion of Goods or Services
    3. Additional Information
    4. Clarification by Examiners
    5. Further Entitlement Objections — Pre-publication Search
    6. Notice Pursuant to Section 44 and/or Section 45
    7. Consent — Confusing Marks
  13. Applicant's Failure to Reply
    1. Section 36 — Abandonment of Applications
  14. Extensions of time — Examiners' Reports and Section 36
  15. Effect of Abandoned Trademark Applications
  16. Letter of Refusal
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